As ancient Egyptian architects gazed up at the night sky and built the three pyramids of Giza based on the celestial plan of the Constellation of Orion , so millennia apart and at the other side of the world, in Mexico at Teotihuacan, architects similarly took their inspiration from Orion to construct their pyramids, with a slight deviation that can be explained by examining the sky on the date of the Winter Solstice, December 22.
Dr Roberto Volterri in Teotihuacán, on top of the Pyramid of the Sun.
In the background is the 'Calzada de los Muertos' and the Pyramid of the Moon clearly visible.
Defined as ‘ the City of the Gods’ or ‘the city where one becomes a god’, located less than 50 kilometers from Mexico City, in a barren, almost 'lunar' landscape, quite different from the green and very humid panorama of Palenque, one finds Teotihuacán, one of the most mysterious cultural regions of archaeological Mexico. From the top of the 63-meter high ‘Pyramid of the Sun’, looking south, one can see a smaller ‘pyramid’ – though it does not have a pyramid structure – dedicated to the Feathered Snake, known as Templo de Quetzalcoatl , and north is the impressive ‘ Pyramid of the Moon’ . In the middle - almost connecting all three pyramids – runs the so-called 'Calzada de los Muertos ', that is the 'Avenue of the Dead' or, in Aztec, Miccaotli. From this vantage point an idea struck Dr Roberto Volterri: “Is it possible that what Robert Bauval in his Orion Correlation Theory , Adrian Gilbert and other followers of 'heretical' archaeology claimed - regarding the possibility that the three pyramids of the Giza Plain; Cheope, Chefren and Mycerino represent an earthly projection of the three stars of the Belt of Orion - could also apply to the three pyramids of the archaeological site of Teotihuacàn?”
The Constellation of Orion - especially the three stars of the 'Belt' - could have appeared to a hypothetical Egyptian priest of the middle of the third millennium BC (or... much earlier?) who had observed the sky from the Giza Plain (Image: Courtesy of Dr Volterri / Deriv).
Could it be that the same inspirational motivation of the unknown builders of the three Egyptian pyramids applied to the unknown builders of the three structures of Teotihuacán, based upon comparative astronomy considerations?
Orion: Archaeoastronomy Inspiration for the Pyramids of Giza and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan - History
Pyramids Schmeramids: Why the Pyramids of Egypt and Mesoamerica
Do Not Share a Common Source
Separated by the Atlantic Ocean and two thousand years, the pyramids of Egypt and Mexico call out to the imagination. They offer glimpses into romantically esoteric societies filled with secret rituals and exacting construction that even today cause us to ogle over them like voyeurs. So the question is not whether they still move us today, obviously they do. Rather, the question is whether they moved each other, or failing that, did they dip their buckets into some common well of knowledge like that of Atlantis? Of course there are seeming similarities between the artifacts and architecture of these geographically and temporally distant societies. The jade death mask of Pacal could easily be compared to that of Tut. Likewise, the half-animal, half-human gods of Egypt are similar, at their most basic level, to Mesoamerican gods like Quetzacoatl. And who can ignore the pyramids?
Unfortunately, despite these apparent similarities, they are unrelated to one another. Not only were the Mesoamerican pyramids built millennia after the those of Egypt, they also did not share the same basic design or function. While the Egyptian pyramids were private tombs meant to set the pharaoh off from the mainstream society of the day and protect him for eternity, the pyramids of Mesoamerica, though sometimes used as tombs, were primarily public temples of ritual and celebration.
Perhaps the most damning argument against hyper-diffusionist theories involving the pyramids of Egypt and Mexico is that even if one allows for the transportation of knowledge via transatlantic contact of some undefined sort, it would still not explain the time lag between their dates of construction, a time lag of not centuries but of millennia.
How many people learned the Gettysburg address by heart in junior high only to have it fade from their memory by high school? Or how many people have heard a joke on Monday morning only to have forgotten it by Tuesday afternoon? The idea is simple: if you dont use it, you lose it. With pyramid construction, it is the same way.
So when were the pyramids of Egypt built? Though there is always division regarding exact dates when dealing with archaeological sites, all legitimate archaeologists agree that pyramid construction in Egypt began and ended almost exclusively with the Old Kingdom, which, using liberal dates, puts the construction of the Egyptian pyramids sometime between 2700 to 2100 bc. However, Egyptologists have further narrowed this time period by the use of stelae and assigned a general date of 2450 B.C. for the construction of the Great Pyramid of Cheops. With the others of Giza constructed in the successive reigns of Kephren and Menkaure:
Near the pyramids of Cheops stand two more pyramids, one, slightly
smaller, attributed to Cheops successor, Kephren, and another,
smaller still, partly sheathed in red granite, attributed to Kephrens
successor, Mykerinos. Together with six diminutive pyramids built
for Cheops wives and daughters, they form what is known as the
Giza complex (Tompkins, 1).
This is not to say that these were the earliest pyramids the ancient Egyptians built. Pyramid construction was a process developed over at least a few centuries as evidenced by the monuments at Dashur and Saqqara. Rather it is meant to set the pyramids of Giza
into a historical context that will allow dating. Since given that these pyramids were constructed by Cheops, Kephren, and Mykerinos, the first of which was Cheops, they are able to be dated by historical accounts from the classical historian Herodotus who saw the Great Pyramid in 440 bc. His History contains the first comprehensive account of Egypt to have survived intact, and he attributes the Great Pyramid to Cheops. This, when combined with the presence of Cheops cartouche on the some of the inner chambers of the Pyramid, places him as the pyramids builder:
The most interesting discovery. was some red-paint cartouches
daubed on the inner wall of the upper chambers [of the Great
Pyramid]. Thanks to the Rosetta Stone. one of these cartouches
was recognized by Egyptologists as belonging to Khufu, believed
to be the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, called Cheops by
the Greeks, whose reign was thought to have occurred in the
third millenium before our era (Tompkins, 17).
The first pyramids of Mesoamerica were not constructed until the sometime between approximately 100 B.C. and 300 A.D: "All this coalesced by about A.D. 300 into what is called the Classic Maya civilization, with spectacular sites such as Palenque, Tikal, and Uaxactun and their temples, pyramids, and palaces" (Sabloff, 1994).
If these pyramids shared a common source, like that of Atlantis, one would think that they would be contemporaneous. It would be only logical that the refugees from any Atlantean cataclysm would arrive at their respective locales at approximately the same time, and once there, they would begin construction of their monuments. However, that is not what happened. The pyramids of Mexico and Egypt are separated by at least 2,000 years.
A diffusionist might dispute the argument of non-contemporaneity by arguing that the societies of Mexico were visited by Egyptians at some later date and were instructed in the art of pyramid building. This argument also fails to hold water, because the Egyptians almost completely stopped building pyramids at the end of the fourth dynasty (ca. 2100 B.C.). The scattered few pyramids dated after then are of exceedingly inferior quality, and therefore demonstrate that even only a few hundred years after the construction of Cheops pyramid the Egyptians had already lost the technical know-how necessary:
[Pyramids after the Fourth Dynasty] were rather poorly constructed,
and the workmanship of the inner core, which has mostly collapsed, is
very much shoddier than that of their illustrious predecessors of the
Fourth Dynasty. All the Fifth Dynasty pyramids are now mere heaps of
rubble, some more like mounds than pyramids (Bauval and Gilbert, 48).
One of the largest differences between the Egyptian and Mesoamerican pyramids is the Egyptians use of only cut stone as both building material and decoration, which they quarried from sources, some of which were hundred of miles away, along the Nile. Though the degree to which the stones were polished or "finished" varied depending upon their location within the structure--stones being more finished varied directly with their proximity to the exterior surface of the pyramid--they were all finished to some degree:
The pyramid itself had three main parts. The innermost section was
the step-like central core. Only the facing blocks of each sloping band
of the core were carefully finished. Second were the packing blocks,
which rested on the steps around the core. They were carefully cut
and fitted. Third were the outer casing blocks laid against the packing
stones. These were of the highest quality and were cut with greater
care and precision than any of the others. All three parts were
constructed simultaneously, one course or layer at a time (Macaulay, 11).
This method of using only cut stone enabled the Egyptians to construct a very sturdy central core that would withstand the centuries without modification. To them, this was an essential aspect of the design because according to their beliefs the pyramid was meant to house the body of the pharaoh, whom they considered a god, for eternity.
The pyramids of Mesoamerica, which are not even true pyramids, served an entirely different purpose, and as such, they were not built to withstand the ravages of time. Rather, these "step" or truncated pyramids rose in tiers, on the top of which a small temple was erected. Additionally, their central core was comprised primarily of large, irregular stones that they brought from the general area and piled. An exterior layer of cut stone served as a kind of retaining wall. To give the pyramids a finished look, their builders often added coats of stucco, sometimes colored blood red:
[The pyramids of Mesoamerica] are made of solid rubble, contained
by outer walls, which are covered with a thick layer of stucco,
carefully smoothed, then painted red. The temple itself, made up of
three narrow rooms, was constructed on a tall, narrow platform at
the summit of the pyramid. Although today [the pyramid in Uaxactun]
is brilliant white, it is likely that, along with the majority of pyramids
that came after it, it was once daubed with blood-red paint (Abrams, 111-113).
A structure built in such a manner was clearly not meant to last "forever," as the Egyptian ones were, and in fact, they have suffered greatly: "There is considerable difficulty in obtaining accurate measures of the Castillo [in Chichen Itza], owing to the large amount of fallen stone" (Baudez and Picasso, 8). However, the people of the area did not intend for their structures last millennia because their cosmology was cyclical and demanded that the temples be re-built at the end of certain lengths of time: "The Maya and other cultures of Mesoamerica frequently built new temples on top of old ones at such times as their religious beliefs directed them to do so" (Williamson, 219).
Related to the manner of construction is the issue of the arch. Hyper-diffusionists (e.g. Donnelly and Van Daniken) sometimes argue that the presence of the arch in both Old and New World construction is proof of a common source of knowledge. However, any attempt to bolster claims of contact or common origin that hinges on this idea is flawed.
The people of the Old World possessed the true arch with its associated load-bearing keystone. Civilizations in the New World only possessed knowledge of the corbelled arch: "Although the true arch with a keystone was present in the ancient Old World. the true arch was unknown in the pre-Columbian New World" (Feder, 176).
The corbelled arch was a less efficient means of supporting structures due to its inability to support the same amount of weight as the true arch. Consequently, the corbelled arch in New World construction led to narrow halls and unstable roof supports. Another reason why the temples of Mexico have suffered.
Another key difference between the pyramids of Egypt and those of Mexico is the function that each had. The pyramids of Egypt were used as tombs for the pharaohs, and they were not meant to be entered once the dead pharaoh was placed safely inside. Those of Mexico, though sometimes housed the bodies of kings, were temples of public ceremony and ritual. Not only were they easily accessible via the staircases on their faces, they were also placed at the heart of cities. This contrasts sharply with the locations of the Great Pyramids, which were on the plains west of Memphis and the hidden nature of their recesses.
The first recorded attempt to enter the Great Pyramid of Cheops was made by an Arab caliph named Abdullah Al Mamun. Al Mamun had a deep interest in science and the
arts and commissioned a group of Arab scholars to undertake the calculation of the Earths circumference. His scholars came up with a figure of roughly 23,000 miles, which was much closer than that of Ptolemy, but they had no way to check the accuracy of their figure. However, Al Mamun was aware of a rumor that the Great Pyramid contained maps and tables of exceeding accuracy of the terrestrial and celestial spheres, in addition to vast quantities of treasure. So in 820 A.D. Al Mamun undertook an expedition to Giza with the intent of enriching his mind and his treasury:
[Al Mamun] collected a vast conglomeration of engineers, architects,
builders, and stonemasons to attack the Pyramid [of Cheops] for
days they searched the steep polished surface of the northern slope
for its secret entrance, but could find no trace of it (Tompkins, 7).
Eventually, the frustrated Al Mamun decided to attack the surface with hammer and chisel in an attempt to force a tunnel into the Pyramids core. He hoped his tunnel would connect with one of the tunnels he believed the ancient Egyptians had placed throughout the structure. Yet, no matter how many blacksmiths stood ready to sharpen and re-sharpen the tools of Al Mamuns work force, they could not penetrate the exterior.
In desperation the Arabs built large fires close to the masonry. When the blocks became red hot, the Arabs through cold vinegar on the limestone, causing it to crack. Then battering rams were used to break up the fractured stone.
Al Mamuns lack of success in discerning any clearly visible entrance is an obvious indicator that the ancient Egyptians desired to keep the contents sealed from everyone except the dead pharaoh. His large work force, which consisted of architects and engineers who would be trained in construction methods, would have found even the most unobtrusive entrance if it had existed. Yet their ingress was made possible through only the most extreme measures.
Surprisingly, the Egyptians did not stop their efforts to limit intruders by excluding a front door. They further augmented their safe-guarding measures by installing a series of granite and limestone plugs at the beginning of the ascending passage which led to what is known today as the Queens Chamber. Feeling that he may have stumbled onto an undisturbed chamber when he encountered the plugs, Al Mamun ordered his men to chip through them. When that proved impossible, he ordered them to bypass the granite plugs and chip into the softer limestone that surrounded them. However, even this proved to be an unexpectedly arduous task:
When the Arabs had bored beyond the first granite plug for over 6
feet, they encountered another granite plug, equally hard and equally
tightly wedged. Beyond it lay a third. By now the Arabs had tunneled
more than 16 feet. Beyond the third granite plug they came upon a
passage filled with a limestone plug which could be cracked with chisels
and removed piece by piece. It is not recorded how many such plugs
the Arabs encountered, but they may have had to clear a score or
more. (Tompkins, 10).
Contrast this with the wide, easily ascended staircases of the Mesoamerican pyramids, and the temples placed on their summit which inevitably contain doors that are visible to the naked eye. Clearly, there is no reason to have a staircase unless it is meant to be ascended, and likewise, there is no reason to put doors on the temples at the top of these truncated pyramids unless the temples are meant to be entered.
However, it is not just the presence and lack of things like staircases and exterior entrances that distinguish the private nature of the Egyptian monuments from the public nature of those of Mesoamerica. Where they are situated in regards to the settlements or cities is also important. The temples of Mesoamerica are placed within the hearts of such ancient metropolii as Teotihuacan, often set along broad avenues. This demonstrates that the Mesoamerican sites were far from mere funerary sites or religious sites. The cities where the temples were built served as hubs for their respective empires: "Teotihuacan in the valley of Mexico is, of course, far more than a commercial center. It was a great city as well, which flourished from 200 B.C. to as late as A.D. 750" (Fagan, 133).
Though pyramids occur up and down the course of the Nile, they were never situated inside of large settlements. Rather, they were put well outside of the Egyptian cities. The plains of Giza where the most impressive Egyptian monuments are is located outside of the ancient city of Memphis. This serves to symbolize the god-like stature of the pharaoh since indeed the pharaoh was considered to be a god.
The Mesoamerican pyramids were situated along completely different lines. They were placed directly within the cities of cultures like the Maya and Teotihuacanos. The pyramids often existed at the end of long avenues. At Teotihuacan the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon lie along the avenue of the dead and are separated by tenements, workshops, the houses of elite officials, and smaller temples. Archaeological excavation at cities like Teotihuacan have proven that long human occupation at the site. Whereas at Giza, though there are the remains of mudbrick houses that workers most surely have occupied during the construction of the Egyptian pyramids, there is no evidence of human occupation of the same duration as that of the Mesoamerican sites.
The most obvious difference between the pyramids of Mesoamerica and those of Giza is their physical appearance. The Pyramids of Cheops, Kephren, and Menkaure are all true pyramids. That is to say that their relative dimensions of equal and they rise in straight lines at a constant angle. Though there are exceptions to this among the earlier pyramids in Egypt this has more to do with the Egyptians learning the how to make a true pyramid than it has to do with them intentionally designing a truncated one, like the pyramids of Mesoamerica.
Not only are the Mesoamerican pyramids truncated, their exterior is also obviously different due to the amount of decoration, primarily in the form of sculptures representing deities in the Mesoamerican pantheon. These sculptures, though they do not appear on every Mesoamerican pyramid, appear on many, including the famous "El Castillo" at the site of Chichen Itza where the feathered serpent god Quetzacoatl appears frequently:
The "Castillo," or castle, as the Spanish called it shows some of the
architectural innovations of the time, some of them based on the theme
of the "feathered serpent." On each face of the pyramid, as well as
on the main facade, the ramps were designed to resemble the bodies
of snakes, with their heads resting at the foot of the slope (Baudez and
In addition to these sculptures it is believed, as mentioned previously, that the pyramids of Mesoamerica were often coated with a "thick layer of stucco." If the Egyptians and Mesoamericans took their inspiration from the same source, it would reason that their design and decoration would closely parallel each other. However, the Egyptian pyramids, other than the brilliantly polished casing stones, are almost totally devoid of exterior decoration, and they were most certainly never covered in stucco. Not only this, but they also failed to have any kind of temple structure at their summit. So it becomes apparent, even when looking at their appearance, that they are dissimilar.
It would be nice to believe that in days of old when knights were bold and airplanes were invented ancient peoples were able to communicate through some undetermined method and mimic our "information age." It would be nice to believe that the diffusion of Atlantean knowledge or hyper-advanced seafaring skills enabled them to distribute knowledge across mountains, deserts, and oceans--not to mention time. That sort of woebegone hearkening imbues the believer with a sense of hope since what was once may be again. This idea of ancient "magic" for lack of a better word is especially appealing in a time such as today when it seems that society is constantly robbed of the wonderfully supernatural beliefs which it has cherished for so long, things like werewolves, vampires and ESP.
Yet, to hold such a belief in the face of the evidence seems more foolhardy than wistful. Worse yet, it could be dangerous. Ideas of ethnocentrism have long been used to justify violent acts against peoples of differing origins. The Nazis subscribed, at least in part to the "Kultur Kriese" of Gustav Cossina which theorized the Germanic peoples as the single, seminal seed of cultural Europe and beyond. It has been well-established how the Nazis put that theory into practice, using it to justify what the modern world terms "ethnic cleansing." While in its extreme forms ethnocentrism robs outside parties of their lives, the more run of the mill variety, robs cultures of their own ingenuity and independent inventions, making it easier for stronger nations to exploit weaker ones by using the justification of "civilizing" them.
When one scrutinizes the monuments of Mesoamerica and Egypt, it is quite apparent that they were not, other than their megalithic size, affiliated in any discernible way. Not only are the construction methods (cut stone vs. rubble), building materials (stone and stucco vs. wholly stone), relative locations (urban vs. rural), design (truncated vs. true pyramids), and function (public vs. private) all substantially different, these monuments are separated by approximately two millennia. With these inconsistencies, authors resort to complex plot lines, and out-of-this-world explanations because that is the only way to connect two wholly different structures.
In fact, the only reason such beliefs persist is mankinds deep sense of romanticism and mankinds even deeper sense of exploiting romanticism for profit. Books like Fingerprints of the Gods, The Orion Mystery, The Message of the Sphinx, and The Mayan Prophecies, purporting such outlandish theories as ancient astronauts, Martian civilization, and Atlantis routinely outsell books on "hard" archaeology. So, as long as people want to believe the pyramids of Mexico and Egypt share a common source, theyll be able to affirm their beliefs, at least to themselves, by charging $19.95 plus shipping and handling to their Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover at Amazon.com.
Baudez, Claude and Picasso, Sydney. The Lost Cities of the Maya.
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, New York, 1998.
Bauval, Robert and Gilbert, Adrian. The Orion Mystery. Three Rivers Press, New York, 1994.
Fagan, Brian M. Archaeology, Sixth Edition. Longman, New York, 1997.
Feder, Kenneth L. Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience
in Archaeology, Third Edition. Mayfield Publishing Company, London, 1998.
Gilbert, Adrian G. and Cotterel, Maurice M. The Mayan Prophecies.
Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1996.
Macaulay, Daivd. Pyramid. Houghlin Mifflin Co., Boston, 1975.
Sabloff, Jeremy A. The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya.
Scientific American Library, New York, 1994.
Tompkins, Peter. Secrets of the Great Pyramid: Two Thousand Years of Adventure
and Discoveries Surrounding the Mystery of the Great Pyramid of Cheops.
Galahad Books, New York, 1978.
Is This the Face of the Pharoah of Quirigua?
W1003: Face of Cauac Sky Quirigua is about 7200 miles from Egypt and its zenith was some 1000 years after the last native Pharaoh ruled there, and yet there are some remarkable similarities that seem to add up to more than coincidence. The majority of the stelae and zoomorphs at Quirigua feature the unusually pharaonic looking face of Cauac Sky (officially named K’ak’ Tiliw Chan Yopaat). Fig. W1003 is the image of Cauac Sky appearing from a turtle shell on a monument known as Zoomorph B and shows that he wore a long goatee beard that is very reminiscent of those that feature so prominently in the portraits of Egyptian Pharaohs. This type of facial hair is seldom seen in Mesoamerican art and is restricted to mythical creations and Gods. It is thought that native Mesoamerican’s were unable to grow facial hair and so any image of a beard in ancient Mesoamerican art has a tendency to raise eyebrows. As such, it is possible that Cauac Sky wore a false beard in the same way the Pharaohs of Egypt did to identify him with power. That’s our first coincidence.
Fig W0968: Stela C Stela C features the Mayan Creation Myth, which tells us how at the beginning of time three stones were placed and then tied to create a new home for humanity. The stela also gives a Long Count date for this as 22.214.171.124.0, which historians have been able to determine equates to 3114 BC . The story is continued in Zoomorph B, which tells us that the First Father (or first Ruler) was born from a turtle shell shortly after the stones were tied. The First Pharaoh of Egypt was Menes, who was crowned after he unified Upper and Lower Egypt sometime between 3130 BC and 3100 BC . Coincidently then, the Mayan date for the birth of the First Father and the Creation of the current era is the same date that the first Pharaoh was crowned.
W0969C: Stela D – Double Headdress
W0960C: Stela A – Headdress Having unified the peoples of the Upper and Lower Nile, the new Pharaoh, Menes, combined the crowns of the two lands to create the iconic double crown. This new crown demonstrated he was the Divine Ruler of both the Upper and Lower Nile and was worn by all subsequent Pharaohs of Egypt. For some reason, Cauac Sky started to wear a double crown at some point during his reign (fig. W0969C ). The attire of Mayan rulers was deeply symbolic and everything from their ears plugs to their boots was designed to tell us about the ruler and his sacred powers. The purpose of this double crown is not known and it doesn’t seem to appear elsewhere in the Mayan world. So again, it seems Cauac Sky began to use another prime piece of Egyptian iconography by complete coincidence.
Stela E There are few things that are more iconic than the Egyptian needles or obelisks. These towering monuments were hewn from the ground as single pieces of rock. Standing as high as 105ft (36m), they were made to be visible and to recount the stories of religious order and the Pharaohs’ glory. The Egyptians also enjoyed building massive statues of themselves. The mighty monuments of Rameses II which reside outside the temple of Abu Simbel in Aswan are surely the most extreme example of monumental statue building ever undertaken, but almost every Pharaoh built at least one mighty monument to celebrate themselves.
The Maya were also keen on building monuments to celebrate themselves and used a form of inscribed stone known as stelae. Typically, these were large stones between 1 and 2 metres tall that were etched in bas-relief (or low relief). The result was a flat, two dimensional image that is incomparable to the works of the Egyptians. Then, in a remarkable break from tradition, Cauac Sky erected the mighty Stela E at Quirigua. This monument stands a massive 10.6 metres tall and is carved from a single piece of rock. Far from two dimensional, Cauac Sky’s face protrudes in mid-relief from his headdress and then the entire imagery continues around the stelae to produce a 3D statue in a style called the “wraparound” style. Stela E rises like an obelisk and is covered in hieroglyphs that describe the achievements of Cauac Sky. It is also covered in religious symbolism and is therefore very reminiscent of the obelisks of the Egyptians. It is also a towering 3-dimensional statue of a mighty ruler, designed to impose power and look to the horizon high above the people of Quirigua, just like the statues of the Pharaohs. Although Stela E is one of several stelae and the style was taken, along with the craftsman, from nearby Copan, Cauac Sky seemed determined to create something completely new, yet very Egyptian. In summary, it is a huge monument and another massive coincidence.
Fig OR10 – Orion Research over the past few decades strongly suggests that the Pyramids of Giza, built by Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, are far from mortuary temples. Instead, it is though they were designed to reflect the three stars of Orion’s Belt, and sit beside the Nile River like Orion sits beside the Milky Way. This was an attempt to have the stars of the Gods’ recreated on the solid earth of Egypt 1 .
Cauac Sky’s monumental building programme seems to have also been designed to recreate Orion on Earth and emulate the tying of the stones which was carried out by Itzamna at the beginning of time. In a re-enactment of the Creation Myth, Cauac Sky had three huge stones sailed down the Motagua River (Stela C, Stela A and Zoomorph B) and then “tied” them on the banks at Quirigua, just Itzamna had tied them by the side of the Milky Way. In this instance, it was not the belt of Orion, but the lower triangle of stars which symbolised the three stones of a hearth (the belt was likened to the smoke rising from the hearth). So again, coincidently, Cauac Sky performed a monumental building programme to rebuild Orion on on the banks of the Milky Way, just as they did in Egypt.
Fig QUI002: Quirigua to Giza Finally, although the calculation of 7200 miles from Quirigua to Egypt was taken from Google Maps and could be inaccurate, the figure of 7200 is a key operator in the Mayan Long Count Calender. The monuments at Quirigua were erected at quarter K’atun intervals a K’atun was a special period of time that was 20 years long, as the Maya used a 360 day year, a K’atun was 7200 days. 20 K’atuns equalled the highest denomination of time known as a B’aktun, which was 144,000 days long. As the Maya had a 20-day week, it means a B’aktun is 7200 weeks long. If you don’t like miles, then 7200 miles equals 11,587 kilometres. There is a scientific school of thought that suggests the Earth has a magnetic polarity cycle that lasts 11,500 years 2 and could be responsible for the dramatic climate changes that occur, in particular the onset of ice ages. This could be equated to a new cycle of life as the world undergoes this incredibly destructive change. It verges on absurd to claim that the Maya built Quirigua where it is becuase the distance to Giza is the equivalent to some highly significant time cycles, but it still counts as a coincidence.
There is, of course, no way there was direct contact between Cauac Sky and the Egyptians, but over two thousand years there is a chance that the legends or descriptions of the Egyptians, or even the odd hieroglyphic papyrus, made it from the Mediterranean to the Americas. There have been plenty of civilisations that were as good at sailing, if not better, than Christopher Columbus: the Athenians, Phoenicians, Mycenaeans, Romans, and even the Egyptians themselves, all had the technology capable to make the trip (this is covered in an article about the Discovery of the Americas). Then there is other possibility, that Cauac Sky adopted all of these ideas through spontaneous thought or divine inspiration – he did after all claim to be a divine ruler and he ruled for an inexplicably long tenure of over 60 years! We are left then with either an unbelievable run of coincidence, evidence of ancient transoceanic contact, or proof that Divine Rulers who are guided by spirits or Gods do exist.
1 The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids – Robert Bauval & Adrian Gilbert – Broadway Books (Aug 1995) – ISBN 978-0517884546
2 British Geological Survey: Magnetic reversal may now be in progress
Orion constellation can easily be found in the sky from November to February. For observers in the northern hemisphere, the constellation lies in the southwestern sky. For those in southern latitudes, Orion can be seen in the northwestern sky and appears to be standing on his head. The constellation’s hourglass shape is marked by the stars Betelgeuse, Bellatrix, Saiph, and Rigel, which are among the brightest stars in the night sky. Betelgeuse and Bellatrix mark the hunter’s shoulders and Saiph and Rigel mark his feet.
The stars forming a diagonal line below the Orion’s Belt form an asterism known as Orion’s Sword. The star lying in the middle of the sword is not a star at all, but the famous Orion Nebula (Messier 42), which appears as a patch of light to the naked eye on clear nights.
To the east, the line of the Orion’s Belt points toward Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, located in Canis Major constellation. To the west, the three stars point in the direction of Aldebaran, the brightest star in Taurus constellation, and make it easy to locate the famous Pleiades (Messier 45) and Hyades star clusters.
Orion in the Bible
The Bible tells us about this constellation in several passages. The first time he is mentioned is in the book of Job, written by Moses about 1500 BC (Job 9: 9 and 38:31). It is also mentioned in (Amos 5: 8). The Bible also implies, in several passages, that towards the North, it is the place of the room of God.
The first of these texts that we would like to show you is the following: “Great is Jehovah and worthy in a great way to be praised in the city of our God, on his holy mountain. Beautiful province, the joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion, on the north side! The city of the great King! ” (Psalm 48: 1,2).
In this text, reference is being made, mainly, to the New Jerusalem, which is the capital of the universe and where the throne of God is located. The heavenly Jerusalem is Mount Zion that is astronomically situated to the sides of the North for us. The ancients defined the North as a cardinal point upwards, contrary to how we do today.
Let’s see how the apostle Paul makes it clear to us, under divine inspiration, that the amount of Zion is not the earthly Jerusalem, but the heavenly one where the dwelling place of God and the angels of his power are. “You, on the other hand, have approached Mount Zion, the city of the living God, Jerusalem the heavenly, the company of many thousands of angels” (Hebrews 12:22).
We should note that this universal cardinal point is where the universal throne of God is located. In the same words of the fallen angel, when he wanted to put himself in God’s place to be worshiped, he manifested this fact. In his greedy self-exhalation and full of arrogant pride he said: “I will go up to heaven.
On high, by the stars of God I will raise my throne and on the mountain of testimony I will sit on the northern ends on the heights of I will raise the clouds and be like the Most High “(Isaiah 14: 13,14).
When we go to the book of the prophet Ezekiel, in his first chapter, we can appreciate the vision that the prophet had of the descent of God, in his cosmic chariot, to the city of Jerusalem to make an investigative judgment on his people, as a result of the apostasy in which they had submerged. But in verse 4 of that same chapter we can appreciate the direction from which God came to judge his people. There it is said that Jehovah was coming on his throne in the direction of the North.
But it is curious to note that he entered the city through the eastern or eastern gate and that he retired from that same place (see Ezekiel 10:19 11:23). But Ezekiel tells us that when God’s glory returns again he will enter through the east gate (Ezekiel 43: 1-4 44: 1,2).
There is a text in the book of Job, which Moses wrote over 3500 years ago. That text has great scientific revelations, long before modern science took credit for discovering these scientific facts already revealed in the Bible. In that passage it is said that the Earth is in a state of weightlessness long before the laws of universal gravitation were discovered. T
he belief of men of science until the 16th century was that the Earth was flat and held on elephants above a turtle lying in the middle of the sea. But this text says that the Earth was hung over nothing, that is, in empty space, in a state of weightlessness. Let’s look at the text: “He extends the North over the void, hangs the Earth on nothing.” (Job 26: 7).
But the detail that concerns us here is the fragment that says: “He extends the North over the void.” Here again we observe the mention of the North, which is the direction of the throne of God in the outer space. But there it is said that the North in the universe is spread over the void. When we go to the data of modern astronomy, our Sun with its entire system in motion, within our galaxy, travels an orbit of 30,000 light years, with a translation speed of 250 km / h.
But the route of this orbit is so huge that it seems to travel a perfectly straight line to the North. In other words, our Sun travels through space with all its planets in a straight line towards the North, in the direction of the constellation of Hercules.
This happens at a speed of 20 km / s, reaching the impressive distance of 2 million kilometers per day. But according to modern astronomy checks, that North direction, where the seemingly linear movement of our solar system is headed, is practically “empty” of stars, when compared to the other cardinal points in the regions of the sky. But Orion has a very mentioned and prominent area in recent years. That place or object is the nebula that this constellation contains in its domains.
The Orion Nebula was discovered casually, in 1618 AD, by astronomer Zisatus, when he made observations of a luminous comet. Although it is also said that it was a French astronomer and not the Jesuit Zisatus who discovered her in 1610, and that Zisatus was only the first to make an article about her. As of that date this nebula has been studied a lot, by astronomy. And it is known that it is located within our galaxy, 350 parsecs from the Sun. A Parsec is equivalent to 3.26 light years.
A light year equals 9.46 billion kilometers. Then these 350 Parsecs would be 1,141 light years which taken to linear kilometers would give us the figure of 10,793, 86 billion kilometers away. But remembering the text of (Job 26: 7), with regard to emptiness, it is curious to note the discoveries made by the international astronomical community in relation to the conditions present in this nebula. Now I will cite the information of an astronomy book by the Soviet publisher Mir, written in 1969, and that reveals something impressive:
“The average density of this gas nebula, or as they often say, diffuse is 10 to seventeen times lower than the air density at 20 degrees Celsius. In other words, a part of the nebula, with a volume of 100 cubic kilometers , it will weigh a milligram! The biggest void in laboratories is millions of times denser than the Orion Nebula! In spite of everything, the total mass of this gigantic formation, which deserves more than comets the name of the ‘nothing visible’ is enormous.
On the substance of the Orion Nebula, approximately one thousand suns like ours or more than three hundred million Earth-like planets could be made! […] To better illustrate this case, let’s point out that, if we diminish the Earth, to the dimensions of a pinhead, then, on this scale,the Orion Nebula would occupy a volume the size of the terrestrial globe! “(F. Ziguel,” The Treasures of the Firmament “, ed Mir. Moscow 1969, p 179).
In other words, the ratio would be as follows: The head of a pin is to Earth, as Earth is to the Orion Nebula. Therefore, if the place of God’s dwelling is “on the sides of the North” in the sky, and he has extended “the North over the void”, and the emptiest region of the sky is in the direction of the nebula of Orion. When we link the Bible with astronomy, everything seems to indicate that the place of God’s throne is located in the direction of the constellation Orion.
Architecture, Astronomy and Sacred Landscape in Ancient Egypt
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- Publisher: Cambridge University Press
- Online publication date: July 2013
- Print publication year: 2013
- Online ISBN: 9781139424554
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139424554
- Subjects: Ancient History, Classical Studies, Archaeology, Egyptology
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.
This book examines the interplay between astronomy and dynastic power in the course of ancient Egyptian history, focusing on the fundamental role of astronomy in the creation of the pyramids and the monumental temple and burial complexes. Bringing to bear the analytical tools of archaeoastronomy, a set of techniques and methods that enable modern scholars to better understand the thought, religion and science of early civilizations, Giulio Magli provides in-depth analyses of the pyramid complexes at Giza, Abusir, Saqqara and Dahshur, as well as of the Early Dynastic necropolis at Abydos and the magnificent new Kingdom Theban temples. Using a variety of data retrieved from study of the sky and measurements of the buildings, he reconstructs the visual, symbolic and spiritual world of the ancient Egyptians and thereby establishes an intimate relationship among celestial cycles, topography and architecture. He also shows how they were deployed in the ideology of the pharaoh's power in the course of Egyptian history.
'A thought provoking study.'
One of my people at work is a devoted Sitchenite. There’s no talking to her. It’s literally her religion now. But my question is, have you read any books or articles by Joseph Davidovitz? He is a French scientist who has been postulating for almost 40 years that the Egyptians could dis-aggragate stone and re-form it into the desired shape. In other words, the blocks were poured into molds by workers hauling slurry. No need for big ramps. It also explains the closeness of the blocks. Interesting. Thanks.
Yes I show a short video of his theory in the Ancient Egypt class I teach at a local university. He doesn’t argue that all the blocks were concrete, though. I think his view works as ONE of several ancient technologies that could (theoretically) have gone into pyramid construction. I think the best overall explanation is that of Houdin (internal ramp).
Notice the 13th point under general Center of Land Mass..Would anyone care to explain how the Egyptians figured this out? I am not an advocate of Stichen’s work.However I do think there might be something to the ancient astronaut theories.Am I wrong in stating that ancient cultures from around the world speak of beings from the heavens coming down and helping human advancement?
personally I’d say it means nothing. There are dozens of pyramids all over lower Egypt and clustered around the lower delta area. We only think this location is special because it’s the tallest. So what?
But the giza pyramids are still standing / any other pyramids built by humans in egypt are crumbling that should show you humans aren’t very bright
wrong – one several counts. There are a number of pyramids in good shape in Egypt, not just Giza. And think about your logic (“something really big long ago is still standing, so it must have been made by aliens”). I would suggest doing some reading on pyramid evolution. The various pyramids in Egypt (including Giza) show a very discernible development, at times trial-and-error. We know how the technology began and progressed from the pyramids themselves.
I could add one more thought. All this “center of land mass” notion proves is that the pyramid is *located* there. It doesn’t prove that the Egyptians *knew* the location was the center of anything. Correlation does not = causation.
I might be wrong but I think the center of land mass means if you take a line going east to west and north to south around the entire earth the great pyramid is at the center of the greatest land mass on earth..So are you saying the Egyptians just got lucky putting it there?There is only one spot on earth they could have built the pyramid to achieve this center of land mass and they just happened build it there.It seems to me there is no way this center of land mass could be known without some sort of satellite mapping technology..Something would have to be able to view the whole earth from above do the calculations in order to achieve this..And i am not implying the Egyptians knew this I am asking how they could have possibly known this.
the only reason anyone would *think* it’s noteworthy is that it’s THIS pyramid. No one would care if it were Menkaure’s. Yes, I think there is zero evidence that it was planned. I’d think it more interesting if it were dead center. But at best what would that prove? That the Egyptians could mathematically calculate the circumference of the earth before the ancient Greeks did it (Eratosthenes, 3rd century BC). It wouldn’t be any more “alien” or supernatural than when Eratosthenes did it.
It seems in order to know where clm was they would need an accurate map of all land mass above sea level.This has nothing to do with the circumference of the earth.
it has everything to do with circumference it’s math.
I disagree because a person could know the circumference of the earth and that in no way would help that person locate the clm..How does knowing the circumference tell a person where all of the continents are located on the earth and what size the continents are?
this tells me you don’t understand the math that would be used. If you knew the circumference of the earth, you’d also know the parameters of PARTS of the earth, and you’d be able to divide your slice of the earth into mathematical units. All you need is an arbitrary starting point. Oh, well.
Hi Mike, i don’t want to get sucked in to a big online debate, but i wanted to (collegially) offer my subjective observations of your broader work. You come across as someone who is trying to defend religion, and the defense you offer appears to focus on micro issues at the expense of the bigger picture. What do you think is going to happen when all religion is finally disproved (there are pyramids in Egypt far older than the 5000-6000 years our current civilization is presumed to have existed for). These sites are now primarily military installations now. Do you not think its coincidence that most Egyptian Scholars are also Muslims? Vested interested in sustaining the current paradigm don’t you think?
The Mayans, the Hopi Indians, the Egyptians and the Sumerians all echo some very similar sentiments and there are too many correlations between these independent cultures, which are in turn are mentioned at least in parts of the old testament for it to all be coincidence. I don’t doubt you are correct in many things you say but you simply cannot offer an explanation for EVERYTHING that so far remains ‘unexplained’ and which implies interaction with beings of high intelligence.
For instance i’d love to hear your explanation as to how the Dogon tribe in Africa understood the star Sirius to comprise two individual stars, how they understood the duration of years fo Sirius B to revolve around Sirius A, and how they knew it was ‘very old and heavy/dense’ (its a white dwarf). This tribe also possessed other ‘interesting’ celestial information such as the order of planets from Pluto to Earth, number of planets, etc. Why would they know the order of the planets, let alone the planets themselves, as you approach earth from outer space?? They knew this 700 years, whilst much of our science has only confirmed this in the last 50-100 years. And this is but one baffling example of many…
I look forward to reading more of your work on this blog. Keep up the interesting research!
1. Writers across religious boundaries contribute either coherent material or not. Their faith has nothing to do with whether than can think clearly, since such matters often must defer to presuppositions.
2. I fail to see how chronology (Egypt being older in terms of civilization) would affect what you think it would In other words, your “challenge” here lacks coherence. Show me why the cause and effect you presume is coherent. For example, who cares if most Egyptologists are Muslims? (It’s actually probably not true, since it was Europe that first made Egyptology an academic discipline). Why would it matter? Does it matter if most heart surgeons aren’t Muslims? Where is the coherence?
3. You write: “The Mayans, the Hopi Indians, the Egyptians and the Sumerians all echo some very similar sentiments” — exactly what sentiments are you referring to? Do you assume they were irreligious? (hardly) or that they would have cared if the Egyptian civilization was older? I don’t see the coherence.
4. On your loving to see what I’d say about the Dogon: http://michaelsheiser.com/PaleoBabble/2009/06/seriously-the-dogon-and-sirius/
coherence on my part, or equally possibly because you’re trying to trivialize certain aspects of my statement to discredit me.
I should clarify that i was referring EGYPTIAN Egyptologists, not Egyptologists as a whole. Regardless, if you can’t see how an field with a figurehead (in this case Zawi Hawass) with a fundamental association to certain religious paradigm, (in this case the Muslim faith) which stands to be radically shifted by the very work undertaken by participants in the field he essentially administers, ISN’T a conflict of interest, there is literally no point in me going any further as you’re clearly not open to discussing the subject rationally. As im sure you’re aware Zawi Hawass essentially controls who researches what in Egypt and why. Now if say, something (man made) were to exist that would threaten that ideology, ie the existence of pyramids older than civilisation as we know it, wouldn’t that then provoke some interesting questions about the current socio-religious paradigm? One that as a Muslim he devoutly follows? Bear in mind also that ultimately, permission is dictated by the Egyptian government. If the work is potentially going to challenge the Muslim faith, do you really think it’s going to be permitted? This is a broader group of people with (an admittedly) fundamental component that in this day and age, chops off the heads of infidels! Don’t take that to mean i consider all Muslims fundamentalists, but that factor is relevant in painting the broader picture here. Just to clarify, the ruins im talking about are those of the first dynasty, which predate Saqqara. Can you explain to me why these are the only pyramids in Egypt to be enclosed by Military fortifications? I’d sure like to know…
Similarly, if you can’t make the connection that (in the context of my first statement) this issue of chronology is intrinsically linked to this conflict of interest, i should just quit now.
This whole issue and your blind faith reaction/explanations/rationalisations remind me of how the Catholic Church reacted when Galileo contended that the world was round and not flat, and that the solar system was heliocentric and not geocentric. We don’t know everything, and the paradigm must at some point change. I don’t pretend to know how its going to change, but to blindly defend it in the face of so many (way beyond the issue of pyramid construction) questions which cannot be accounted for in the current body of scientific and historical knowledge, is tantamount to suppression of the truth. You of all people have to concede that there are some things that humans still do not (i personalyl believe in the scheme of things we’re still in the process of climbing down from the trees – the world is still based on the notion of money and burning dead dinosaurs even though we know it will eventually destroy us and the earth!) and where historically these things have been attributed to “the gods”, i reject that 100%. While i don’t believe the popular notion of god being an old man in the clouds with a beard and a white toga, i certainly believe that there are forms of higher intelligence out there. If you understand the finite nature of stars, galaxies, and the constantly expanding universe, it’s irrational and illogical to presume that none of “this” has happened before.
Whether or not this higher intelligence constructed the pyramids is neither here nor there. This is the broader picture i alluded to you ignoring in my first post, and this debate is manifest evidence of the trivialisation and micro-compartmentalisation of the bigger issue i also alluded to in my first post.
since Egypt is a Muslim country, I’d expect most Egyptian Egyptologists to be Muslim. That really means nothing, since they have no control over the discipline — Egyptology has been a flourishing discipline since the days of Napoleon. There are also many Europeans and Americans working with Egyptians at the highest levels.
I should also add that I know of few Christians in Egyptology, though I do know a few. This notion you have of a religious filter in Egyptology is incoherent.
I forgot to mention that western science was only able to confirm the existence of Sirius B in 1862. Admittedly i didn’t see your post about the Dogons and you’re alternative hypothesis as to how they came across this information, but you still fail to explain how they knew that Sirius B was composed of the heaviest matter in the universe (not completely accurate admittedly, but not far off!) or how they knew the reverse order of the planets in relation to earth. We only discovered Pluto (i think it was Pluto, correct me if im wrong) in the latter half of this century, so how did they know this then?
I’m continuing to read your blog and learning some new things and gaining a different perspective along the way, so keep up the good work!
Mike, I’m at pains to point out that im honestly not trying to provoke a reaction from you or anyone else who may read this and that nothing i have posted has been with intended sarcasm or ill intent. Everyone’s entitled to their own view after all. I think ater this though i will think long and hard before adding anything to your blog. This is going to be a case of “agree to disagree”.
I find your last point a little hard to swallow, particularly when you have posted commentary which seems to validate what im saying. See here:
The last sentence of that link is particularly relevant
“…Dr Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities has been quick to dismiss the discovery: “There are no new discoveries to be made at Giza”, he stated. “We know everything about the plateau – amateurs cannot find anything new….”
That statement infers that ZH (and by association the ministry/movement he administers) is at best, dismissive of new discoveries by external parties in this area. Assuming the “we” he refers to is the Supreme Council of Antiquities, that alone validates what I’m saying. The second statement in which he proclaims to know everything there is to know about Giza simply supports the point i was trying to make about protecting the Muslim teachings. There may be nothing at Giza which would change the Muslim teachings, but whose to say that the attitude adopted on this issue isn’t uniformly applied to any contentious area of research? What i don’t understand is how a credible scientist and academic can presume to know everything. Closed behaviour of this sort suggests he is protecting something whether it’s simple national pride or the principle tenets of the Muslim faith aren’t clear on the facts of this case alone, however I consider that to a certain extent, the two possible motives are related.
Please — like I’m saying there are no more things to discover. Give me a break.
What I’m, saying is that a number of engineers have taken a close look at the pyramids. They are not an engineering problem so much as they have been a logistical problem. The latter is fading fast ih wake of Houdin’s theory.
Regarding provoking a reaction. I didn’t feel that way, but I do a bit to this last reply. I try to be as brief and plain as I can in replies. I don’t have the time to write much, so I try and cut to the chase.
there are hundreds of pyramids that have been discovered all over the world. the reason that these specific three are of note is because after meticulous examination, by all logic we know, they shouldn’t be there – but they are. mainstream archaeology and egyptology claim that the great pyramid, for one, was built 4500 years ago by a civilization that for all intents and purposes did not have the wheel, were realtively recently out of the stone age, had no knowledge of the concept of pi, didn’t know the world was spherical, certainly had no machines, and had almost nothing at their disposal to accomplish this aside from stone tools and ropes. according to mainstream egyptology’s time schedule, 2.3 million limestone blocks (each weighing in excess of a few tons and some much much more) were quarried and carried across the nile river – each already being exactly the right size for where it ended up in the pyramid – in 20 years and put exactly in place. if one does the math, a stone would have had to have been placed every 4.5 seconds non-stop, day and night for 20 years, the highest being 480 feet up. each of the sides of the great pyramid (0.01% difference in length) is aligned perfectly with the four cardinal directions. the forementioned height of the pyramid is the same as the mean altitude above sea level of the entire earth. the pyramid itself utilizes a slope of exactly 53 degrees (4/pi) to achieve a mathematical representation of the entire northern hemisphere on a scale of 1:43200. more specifically, the relationship of its circumference to its height is the same as that of the earth’s circumference to its radius from the north pole. furthermore, if one divides the perimeter of the pyramid by its height, one gets 2pi. each of the sides of the great pyramid is cuved inward at its base. this slight curvature matches precisely that of the earth. all three of the pyramids at giza are a ground map of orion’s belt, each corresponding perfectly to angle, position and size of each of the three stars (alnitak, alnilam and mintaka). the position of these three stars in the sky locked perfectly over head in the southern sky in 10,500bc (with the nile river lining up to illustrate the milky way). this may sound like a coincidence, but this happens to be the same age from which the sphinx (originally a lion) is dated due to water erosion (occurring no later than 10,500bc) and position. by position, i mean that as the sphinx gazes east, and as it is in the form of a lion, it would have been absurd to construct a monument in the form of a lion in the age of taurus, when egyptologists say it was built. the age of leo was last seen in, yep, 10,500bc. it was an equinoxial marker gazing at its own constellation as the sun rose in front of it. to deny these very few examples and categorize them as coincidence would be irrational. there have been engineers, machinists, archaeologists and physicists who have stepped forward and said that we could not recreate these types of structures even today. others have studied the giza plateau and have found machine cuts on structures. notice i have said nothing about nibiru, nothing about the annunaki and nothing about astronauts. what i’m trying to demonstrate here is that it looks like there was a culture on earth who erected these and many other structures around the world who were far more advanced than we could imagine, and who lived longer ago than conventional egyptologists ever contended. the question is, where did they go? robert bauval, graham hancock, john anthony west, giorgio tsoukalos and, of course, erich von daniken do a great job entertaining this question.
“if one does the math, a stone would have had to have been placed every 4.5 seconds non-stop, day and night for 20 years, the highest being 480 feet up.”
Oh, may I try (full disclosure: I am not a scientist/engineer/mathematician)?
2,300,000 blocks at 20 years.
2.3 million blocks / 20 yr = 115,000 blocks/yr
115,000 (blocks/yr) / 365 days = 315 blocks/day
315 (blocks/day) / 24 hours = 13 blocks/hour
13 (blocks/hour) / 60 min = 0.22 blocks/min
0.22 (blocks/min) / 60 sec = 0.004 blocks/sec
So that means they would have to set a block every 4/1000 th of a second…no, that is not meaningful…how about 1/0.004, which yields:
(roughly) 270 seconds per block? Or better, 4.5 minutes per block.
Also, these guys (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/khufu.html) estimate “workers would have had to set a block every two and a half minutes.” Guess they took more time-off.
In any event, the assertion is false that the math dictates a block needs to be set every .5 seconds” (barring a math error or some such, in which case you have my apologies for the confusion).
thanks – nice to see someone who likes math taking that on!
Just got a link to you from a fellow PoF forum aquaintence.
Interesting stuff …
I’ve read a lot of it previously but don’t mind refreshers.
The Spynx thing need more than erosion evidence … it needs pollin dating evidence. Wind and sand erosion versus water erosion are not so easily distinguished in a desert and the source of the categorizing it as water erosion is not completely reputable.
I agree daniken and friends are entertaining but factuality is dubious at best.
I do find it strange … that the Egyptologists don’t push to test the geopolymer theory with actual stone from the quaries of Giza.
http://www.geopolymer.org/category/archaeology/pyramids seems pretty concrete [no pun unless you like puns] as far as the simplicity of the science goes.
A lost technology of the ancients makes more sense than aliens. I do think there could have been an ancient globalization of sorts at one time allowing this technology to be used in the Americas too. The simple reason pyramids are all over the world is that a pyramid is a basic geometric shape and as math improved … so did construction. … again … no magic aliens needed.
Just respect for the intellect of ancient man. He had at least 70,000 years to think up how to do it.
i’m more partial to the ancient technology theory than aliens as well. and pons, it wasn’t a math error it was a typing one. i typed the word “seconds” when i meant to type the word “minutes.” this begs one to read it again with the correction. is it still not outrageous that a stone was placed more frequently than every five minutes for twenty years straight, nonstop from people who barely have any tools (pretty much what i attempted to say in the first place, haha)? does that not completely befuddle anyone else? is everything but my clerical error being chalked up to coincidence? it is also interesting that while it is agreed upon that the egyptians of 4000 years ago didn’t have means of global communication or transportation, another pyramid (this one almost as befuddling) stands exactly the same size over 7000 miles away (teotihuacan). and no, wind and sand erosion are not easily distinguishable from one another, but they are distinguishable as separate from water erosion.
i see how someone else suggests that the stones were cast. that’s right, cast! this suggests that the ancients had the equipment necessary to bring limestone to a liquid and pour it into place (a theory entertained at puma punku in bolivia) employing an advanced technology that was later lost while conventional archaeology says these people were relatively recently out of the stone age. this type of method is today considered for advanced high-tech composites and ceramic applications! this would be an amazing discovery, and i would be the first to embrace it. thanks for the geopolymer article (ps – i love puns)! if this technology existed, it again begs the question: where did the people who possessed this technology go? were they actually the same people who lived near the nile in the second millenium bc?
Thank you MSH, your website rocks! Your brief tutorials on the Sumerian language coupled with the scholarly resources that you linked are fantastic. Your responses to Mr. Zecharia Sitchin’s work (especially your translation citations for the VA-243 piece) are nothing short of superb.
Thank you for your work in establishing this website, it makes it easy to find logical and objective sources when it comes to evaluating assertions often made by Ancient Astronaut Theorists. (Of course, I also enjoy Ancient Sumerian history, and having an expert so willing to provide such a website…well, thank you.)
Jeff, I’m curious about your statement @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.:
“the pyramid itself utilizes a slope of exactly 53 degrees (4/pi)…”
What does the 4/PI signify?
a) a simple number to be multiplied by 53 degrees?
b) the slope in radians, equivalent to 53 degrees?
c) the tangent of the slope of 53 degrees?
d) something else?
If (a), then the statement is meaningless because it just represents a coefficient attached to an arbitrary angle.
If (b), then it is false, as 53 (deg) = 53 PI/180 (rad) = 0.2944 PI (rad) != 4/PI (rad)
If (c), then it is also false:
tangent of “exactly 53 degrees” = tan (53 deg) = tan (53 PI/180 rad) = 1.32704
Since 1.32704 != 1.27324, then the slope of “exactly 53 degrees” does not equal 4/PI.
If (d), then please specify (and source by link please) as I am most curious about this assumed relationship claim. Appreciate it, thanks.
Orthodox archaeology claims without a flinch that the great pyramid builders had no sophisticated understanding of the concept of Pi (Beckmann, 43-46), and they furthermore claim that it wasn’t accurately quantified until the work of much later Egyptians, or not even until the Greeks over 2000 years later, yet there are plenty of instances of a very sophisticated use of Pi in the pyramid’s construction dealing with things like its perimeter, its height and the dimensions of the king’s chamber, among others (Hancock, 273-350). I simply could have picked another occurrence of Pi to illustrate its usage as being one of many things that orthodox archaeology chalks up to coincidence, and perhaps one less readily dismissed. That being said, I will also be the first to agree that Pi usage is NOT a smoking gun from a lost earlier civilization, but it was never the most compelling of what conventional archaeology would call an “oop” (out of place), and i never meant for it to be the crux of my argument, because there are plenty of far more compelling “oop”s at Giza and all over the world that conventional archaeology is, for all intents and purposes, ignoring.
Beckmann, Petr. “A History of Pi.” New York, NY: 1971.
Hancock, Graham. “Fingerprints of the Gods.” New York, NY: 1995.
Jeff @ 7 May 2010 at 11:49 PM
“i typed the word “seconds” when i meant to type the word “minutes.” “
No worries Jeff, I make typos all the time. So 4.5 seconds should read 4.5 minutes per block — got it, thanks Jeff.
“is it still not outrageous that a stone was placed more frequently than every five minutes for twenty years straight, nonstop from people who barely have any tools (pretty much what i attempted to say in the first place, haha)?”
That is an impressive rate, but it is an average measure, not a literal procedure. In other words, a single team did not likely place an individual block every 4.5 minutes. More likely, several teams placed several blocks every day (or work shift) — 4.5 min per block is what the workers would need to have averaged.
Consider something like this:
4.5 min/blk translates to about:
320 blk/day (for twenty years, non-stop, etc)
380 blk/day (for twenty years, where each year consists of 300 days-of-work and 65 days-off)
400 blk/day (for twenty years, same as above but also accounting for mistakes and setbacks).
400 blk/day divided among (say) 20 teams –>
20 blk/day per team, where each work-day for a team is (say) a 10 hour shift –>
20 blk/10 hr per team –> 2 blk/hr per team –> 1 blk every half-hour per team.
Further, each team could have two crews, where each crew works only 5 hours a day.
Bottom line, here is a scenario where a team of workers gets 30 minutes to place each block, from the time they receive it (where each worker gets 65 days-off a year, and executes actual labor of 5 hours a day).
Adjust some parameters:
*increase the teams to 40, the rate is 1 blk/hr
*then increase the construction time from 20 years to 25, 0.75 blk/hr (or 1 hr and 13 min per block)
*then increase the shift to 12 hours (6 hours per crew), 0.64 blk/hr (or 1 hr and 33 minutes per block).
(something like that anyway)
we can play with the factors (time, number of individuals, weight of the stones, distance hauled, etc) all we want and continuously assume more and more people were involved, and in your calculations you seem to be asserting that i disagree the pyramids were built at all, which i obviously don’t, but it has become apparent that those who did build the pyramids at giza were by no means “one step out of the stone age,” as it has been referred to in the past, but instead master builders, surveyors, architects, astronomers and engineers. it’s not so much a question of timing and head-count, but instead a question of primitivism and foresight. the fact that it’s feasible for a large group of people to build a pyramid doesn’t compromise this. these three were done with such exacting results, and the rest of the pyramids found all over egypt, which probably utilized some form of your methods of construction, absolutely pale in comparison to the three at giza. somehow, this includes pyramids attributed to dynasties that came to pass AFTER the fourth dynasty and its three at giza. this begs the obvious question, if each dynasty stood on the shoulders of the last and advanced its ability to build its “tombs,” why have the later dynasties’ pyramids not withstood time as the fourth dynasty’s have? since they were such a feat, why are there no markings indicating to whom they belonged? if i was a pharaoh in charge of building those, i would make sure everyone knew it was i who built them. the reason may be that these were INHERETED by the fourth dynasty kings instead of built by them. people as primitive as orthodox egyptology claims could not have done this – even at 1 bock per hour and a half, which is being generous given the time schedule. yet people still think that those with only copper tools and some rope at their disposal lifted tonnage of limestone to almost 500ft, not to mention how each stone was exactly the size it needed to be, and also not to mention the distance from which said stones were quarried, and they did it so perfectly that they remained unchanged for thousands of years. have you seen the chambers and shafts inside the great pyramid? the way they were constructed couldn’t be duplicated even today. they were basically rolex watches built to the size of mountains.
Jeff @ 10 May 2010 at 9:43 PM.
“That being said, I will also be the first to agree that Pi usage is NOT a smoking gun from a lost earlier civilization, but it was never the most compelling of what conventional archaeology would call an “oop” (out of place), and i never meant for it to be the crux of my argument, because there are plenty of far more compelling “oop”s at Giza and all over the world that conventional archaeology is, for all intents and purposes, ignoring.”
Agree with you, Jeff, about PI usage in the Great Pyramid not being a “smoking gun” for an “out of place” moment. Here is a simple method of construction-design for the Great Pyramid, that incorporates relationships of PI (and other notable ratios as well) without the builder having to know about the existence of such relationships.
Suppose that the Egyptians didn’t know anything about but laid out the pyramid using a measuring wheel, such as those used today to measure distances along the ground.
Take a wheel of any diameter and lay out a square base one revolution on a side. Then make the pyramid height equal to two diameters
By this simple means you get a pyramid having the exact shape of the Great Pyramid containing perimeter-squaring of the circle and area squaring of the circle and, for no extra cost, the golden ratio!”
Applying this to the Great Pyramid, if the circumference of the measuring wheel were (say) 1 cubit, then:
440 revolutions (or 440 X 2 PI radians) = 440 cubits (total length)
220 revolutions (or 220 X 1 PI radians) = 220 cubits (1/2 total or leg-length)
Thus, the leg-length would be a multiple of PI.
For the height, take 2 diameters of the measuring wheel and multiply by a scaling factor of 440, or:
Height = scaling factor X 2 X d = 440 X 2 X (1 cubit / PI) = 280.11 cubits
(note: we know that d = circumference / PI, the Egyptians could have simply measured the wheel to get diameter).
Height/leg-length = 280.11/220 = scaling factor X 4/PI = 1.2732
arctan(1.2732) = 51.85 deg = 51 deg 51 min 14.3 sec
In short, building in this manner would guarantee the incorporation of the PI relationship (and other famous ratios), even if the builders had no direct knowledge of PI.
Just a quick note about choosing two diameters for height:
1 d yields a height and slope of: 140.06 cubits and 32.48 deg (not impressive)
2 d yields a height and slope of: 280.11 cubits and 51.85 deg
3 d yields a height and slope of: 420.17 cubits and 62.36 deg (too expensive)
So, using two diameters of the measuring wheel (multiplied by the scaling-factor) to get the height would guarantee an angle above 45 deg and by not gong larger than two diameters, the expense and time-of-completion are reasonable.
The Great Pyramid is without a doubt the Masterpiece of the Egyptian pyramid-making engineering. Given centuries of pyramid-making and stone-cutting traditions prior to the construction of the Great Pyramid, perhaps a confluence circumstances — ability, knowledge, wealth, stability, continuance — gave rise to such a masterpiece.
Jeff @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.
the aforementioned height of the pyramid [480 ft] is the same as the mean altitude above sea level of the entire earth.
This is an interesting assertion, and it is repeated on a variety of non-scientific sites. However, none of those sites source any scientific data as to what the “mean altitude above sea level” was at the time of construction.
Are you able to source the scientific data that “the mean altitude above sea level of the entire earth” was 480 ft at the time of the construction of the Great Pyramid (please feel free to pick whatever construction date you wish)?
Jeff @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.
…to achieve a mathematical representation of the entire northern hemisphere on a scale of 1:43200.
* mean polar radius of the Earth is 6,356.7523 km or 6,356,752.3 m
* orignial height of the Great Pyramid of Giza was 146.478 m
* scale of 1/43,200
Then 6,356,752.3 m / 43,200 = 147 m
Since 147 m is close to the suspected original height of the pyramid, why stop at the northern hemisphere? This height roughly corresponds to the scale of the entire Earth Polar Radius.
However, any measurement multiplied by an arbitrary scaling factor will yield any result. For example, all of these measurements correspond to the height of the Pyramid (all in meters):
A scaling factor of 2,615,000 (rounded), corresponds to: distance of the Earth / Moon.
A scaling factor of 486,300 (rounded), corresponds to: Diameter of Jupiter.
A scaling factor of 43,400 (rounded), corresponds to: Equatorial Radius of the Earth.
A scaling factor of 43,200 (rounded), corresponds to: Polar Radius of the Earth.
A scaling factor of 41,200 (rounded), corresponds to: Radius of Venus.
A scaling factor of 18,400 (rounded), corresponds to: Diameter of Triton.
A scaling factor of 6,500 (rounded), corresponds to: Diameter of Ceres.
A scaling factor of 75 (rounded), corresponds to: Depth of Marianas Trench.
A scaling factor of 29 (rounded), corresponds to: Ave Depth of the Pacific Ocean.
A scaling factor of 14 (rounded), corresponds to: Ave Thickness of the Antarctic Ice.
A scaling factor of x (rounded), corresponds to: y.
According to this source, the scaling factor of 43,200 is not arbitrary, but linked to the precession of the Earth. The idea being that a 60 deg arc along the ecliptic plain takes 4,320 years. Multiply this by 100 and one comes to 43,200 years. Finally, ignore the units and disregard that this parameter is not a scaling factor but a time factor.
Such a construction still has arbitrary properties and is quite contrived. Picking an arbitrary 60 deg segment (why not 120 deg or 180 deg, which exactly equals PI radians?) and multiplying the time it takes to travel that segment by an arbitrary factor of 100 (why not 1,000 or 10 or 1/10?), then ignoring the time parameter and arbitrarily stripping the quantity of its units (which are years) is hardly the work of master engineers.
Bottom line: The scaling factor is arbitrary, either by means of random choice or by means of contrived selections.
i would suggest reading (or more effectively, watching a presentation on) what has been discovered about the pyramid with regards to its resemblance of the earth.
by the way, the height of the pyramid is exactly the mean altitude of all land above sea level. not arbitrary. pointing out how the least compelling points of interest have a potentiality to be coincidence or arbitrary doesn’t come close to refuting ancient intelligence theorists. it’s simply response for the sake of responding.
please provide the sources for these figures / statements.
i believe this elevation was spoken of in books published by bonnie gaunt, david childress, graham hancock, and i think it’s even referenced in the canon of the hebrew bible.
my side of the argument has posed questions unanswerable until ancient intelligence is taken seriously. which questions has your side posed that are unanswerable until ancient intelligence is NOT taken seriously?
only a couple of all of the “factoids” i have brought forth have been addressed, and i haven’t even mentioned nazca, machu picchu, puma punku, tiahuanaco, teotihuacan, easter island, the mayans or the olmecs.
Jeff 23 May 2010 at 7:09 PM.
“by the way, the height of the pyramid is exactly the mean altitude of all land above sea level. not arbitrary. pointing out how the least compelling points of interest have a potentiality to be coincidence or arbitrary doesn’t come close to refuting ancient intelligence theorists. it’s simply response for the sake of responding.”
Perhaps you have confused some of my comments. With regard to your assertion that the height of the pyramid is equal to the “mean altitude of all land above sea level”, I made no claim or assumption about the validity of your assertion, neither did I call it arbitrary (oddly, you did). Indeed, I just asked if you could source the scientific data proving that the mean altitude at the time of the pyramid construction was equivalent to its height.
If there is no such data then the “ancient intelligence theorists” who hold to such an assertion are incorrect. If there is such data, please source it.
Jeff @ 23 May 2010 at 7:27 PM.
“i believe this elevation was spoken of in books published by bonnie gaunt, david childress, graham hancock, and i think it’s even referenced in the canon of the hebrew bible.”
Bonnie Gaunt has zero academic credentials listed.
David Childress has zero academic credentials.
Graham Hancock was a journalist.
(Really, that is the best you can do?) Not sure why you fear credible data, since it could quite possibly prove your assertion.
Only scientific data can objectively support the answer to what the mean-altitude was. Such an answer would be subject to scrutiny and the data available for inspection.
Here are some examples of sources that I looked at, and none had the desired information:
United States Geological Survey, or the USGS
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, or theJEA
The Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, or the JGR
NASA Earth Observatory, or the EOS
The National Science Foundation NSF
Re: the “canon of the Hebrew bible”, please site the chapter and verse. How cool is it that Dr. Heiser is the host of this site and has a Ph.D.in Hebrew Bible and Semitic Studies (!).
thanks there is nothing in the Bible about pyramid measurements. I just don’t know where things like that start (other than not reading the Bible or searching through it with software or a hard copy concordance).
Jeff, there are assertions like the ones you have made, that are all over the internet and on television specials. What I have found, is when challenging such assertions, the premises supporting them are often false, missing, or in the case of acting as exculpatory evidence, ignored.
I do apologize if you feel like I am picking on you, but you did make several assertions without supporting them. I gave you credit (and still do) as being an intelligent, open-minded person who is interested in the wonder of real history and archeology.
Jeff, I do not wish to be a mean-guy, but you are making me feel like I’m telling a 7-year-old there is no Santa Claus, as opposed to discussing/debating someone who is in a serious pursuit of knowledge. I am not an expert and was hoping you could seriously defend your assertions and objectively take apart my challenges, as I am truly interested in archeology and seek to better understand the subject. My mistake. Between your lack of objective sourcing, and your commenting on my challenges without fully reading them (save one), what is the point of your replying?
Re: lost civilizations — I would love to believe in them. Here is an intriguing possibility, but note the evidence or at least the clear indications that make such a belief justifiable. No unsupported assertions are needed.
Certainly, there is nothing wrong with believing in profound assertions, even when unable to support them. If such is the case here, Jeff, then by all means please do not feel any obligation to seriously reply to the challenges made to your assertions. Feel free to remain secure in your beliefs and satisfied with the validity of those assertions that make you most comfortable in your beliefs. (Of course, when an assertion is proven invalid, and one still chooses to believe in it, well… that’s a different story…).
Respectfully, Jeff, you may not want to continue to read my future comments on this thread, as I intend to challenge every such assertion you made in your comment @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM (provided, of course, that such a privilege is continued by the host and as time allows).
[email protected] 25 May 2010 at 7:01 PM.
Thanks for the verification Dr H.
In my short foray into examining some of these assertions, it appears that a positive-feedback mechanism is at work.
Once a profound assertion is made, it is repeated (often verbatim, although sometimes with “enhancements”) without regard to any sort of fact-checking. These unchecked assertions are eventually accepted as factual by some, which in turn are used to support a given theory. The given theory then supports the original assertion. In short, the assertions prove the facts, the facts prove the theory, and the theory proves the original assertions. The scholarship of modern science is largely dismissed.
Typically, those who believe in such facts are not willing to debate in objective terms or even mention that their “facts” might be in error (other than lip service to being “open-minded”). In my experience, such individuals quote self-proclaimed “experts” who typically turn out to be laymen. Sometimes, these “experts” are the original sources of the assertion. It seems that for some, the rules of logic and intellectual integrity are summarily ignored (and even looked upon with contempt).
Jeff @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.
“more specifically, the relationship of its circumference to its height is the same as that of the earth’s circumference to its radius from the north pole.”
* circumference of the Earth is 40,076 km or 40,076,000 m.
* mean polar radius of the Earth is 6,356.7523 km or 6,356,752.3 m.
* each original base length was 230.37 m.
* orignial height of the Great Pyramid of Giza was 146.478 m.
Ratio of Earth’s circumference to its polar radius = 40,076,000 m / 6,356,752.3 m = 6.30
Ratio of Pyramid’s circumference to its height = perimeter to its height* = 4 X 230.37 m / 146.478 m = 6.29
This constitutes a match however there are other relationships that are similar:
Venus’ eq circumference to its polar radius = 38,025,000 m / 6,052,000 m = 6.28
Here are some more (Mars and Moon used equatorial circumference / polar radius, all others utilized mean averages):
15,326,200 / 2,439,700 = 6.282 about 6.28 for Mercury
21,334,900 / 3,376,200 = 6.319 about 6.32 for Mars
10,907,400 / 1,738,140 = 6.275 about 6.28 for Moon
16,171,000 / 2,575,500 = 6.279 about 6.28 for Titan
11,398,000 / 1,815,000 = 6.280 about 6.28 for Io
So, to state that the Great Pyramid was displaying the ratio for the Earth and not Venus (or Mercury, Mars, Moon, Titan, or Io for that matter) requires speculative interpretation. These types of ratios exist on other contemporary structures as well, but are meaningless.
Some other ratios:
75.6 inch lamppost / 12 inch lamp = 6.30
24.4 inch cat / 4 inch collar = 6.11 (Jupiter’s circumference to polar radius ratio).
Bottom line: any ratio where “this” is divided by “that” can equal a meaningful relationship if one looks for a matching result. In this case, speculative interpretation is required as this ratio can mean or represent anything (as demonstrated above). In short, multiple solutions make all of them trivial.
* Ratio of Pyramid’s circumference to its height = 2 PI (230.37 / 2) / 146.478 = 4.94 which is not even close, so I substituted Pyramid’s perimeter. There are many theories attributing circle properties to the base of the Great Pyramid. I took Jeff’s assertion at his most literal because it is more often repeated and yielded results more favorable to his assertion.
*The radius of pyramid = height of pyramid –> circumference of 2 PI 146.478 m, which divided by its height is 2 PI = 6.28. Again, since the perimeter to height ratio was slightly closer to the Earth’s Circumference/Polar radius ratio, I elected to use the perimeter.
*The radius is equal to half of 8/9 of a side of the Pyramid’s base length. The ratio (eventually) evaluates to 4.39. Not even close to the assertion.
Jeff @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.
“furthermore, if one divides the perimeter of the pyramid by its height, one gets 2pi.”
* each original base length was 230.37 m.
* orignial height of the Great Pyramid of Giza was 146.478 m.
* (2 PI) = 6.2832
Perimeter / Height = (4 X 230.37 m) / 146.478 m = 6.2909
The perimeter/height ratio is within 0.062% of (2 PI).
This makes sense when using the Pizza-Cutter Theory cited above (@ 19 May 2010 at 4:13 PM). Recall, if the circumference of a measuring wheel were (say) 1 cubit and was used to measure the base of the pyramid, then:
Each base of the pyramid leg = 440 revolutions (or 440 X 2 PI radians) = 440 cubits.
For the height, take 2 diameters of the measuring wheel and multiply by a scaling factor of 440, or:
Height = scaling factor X 2 X d = 440 X 2 X (1 cubit / PI) = 280.11 cubits
Perimeter / Height = (4 X 440 cubits) / 280.11 cubits = 6.2832
This perimeter/height ratio is within 0.00048% of (2 PI).
Bottom line: This result is a property of using a measuring wheel (or similar, or spooled measured rope, etc) to measure the base and derive a height of the pyramid (as explained in the earlier comment). There are other theories, but in this manner, PI and other notable ratios would be incorporated into the pyramid without any conscious planning or intent — or even knowledge. It is an expected and elementary result and is therefore trivial.
Oops, % are off – should read 0.12 % and 0.00023% respectively.
Jeff @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.
“each of the sides of the great pyramid is cuved inward at its base. this slight curvature matches precisely that of the earth.”
If true, then the radius of the Earth and the radius of the facial arcs of the pyramid must be equal. Let’s test.
(Quick note: I have attempted to post this comment twice before, but my guess is it was flagged by the filter due to length or number of links or something like that. To that end, I have divided it into two parts).
* Sir Flinders Petrie’s observation that refer to the concavity of the pyramid core, which “had dips of as much as 1/2 deg to 1 deg.”
* The formula for a radius of an arc, given its chord length (or width) and its segment height is: r = ( h / 2 ) + ( w^2 / (8h) ).
R: Mean Radius of the Earth = 6.3 million meters.
r: radius described by the concavity of the Great Pyramid, of each layer.
w: chord (or width) of the arc.
h: segment height of the arc.
From Sir Petrie, we can solve for h:
* At the start-point of w, draw a new line (call it hyp) projecting from the start-point and form a 0.5 deg angle with w (the 0.5 deg comes from Petrie’s observation, 1 deg will also be tried).
* At the midpoint of w, draw a perpendicular line that intersects the hyp. This perpendicular line is h.
* The hyp, h and 1/2 w form a right triangle where all the angles are known: 90 deg, 0.5 deg, 89.5 deg, respectively.
* Using the Law of Sines: h is to (sin 0.5 deg), as 1/2 w is to (sin 89.5 deg) or solving for h:
* h = (1/2 w) X (sin 0.5 deg) / (sin 89 deg).
* the length of the base (call it base_line) will serve as the chord, so –> chord = base_line = w.
* The lowest layer of the pyramid is not concave according to notable surveyors such as Sir Petrie, but the upper layers are. Since the mean length of the lowest base_line is about 230 m, it can be safely excluded. Moving up the Pyramid means shorter and shorter base_lines.
* Each layer of the pyramid must be tested (except the base). Either interpolation or exact chord lengths are required to determine the exact radius for a layer of the pyramid.
* Plugging in w-values yields h-values, and plugging both of those into the first formula yields the r-values:
(w, h, r) –> where all values are in meters.
(225, 0.9824, 6442),
(220, 0.9605, 6299),
(215, 0.9387, 6156),
(210, 0.9169, 6013),
(205, 0.8950, 5870),
(200, 0.8732, 5726),
(195, 0.8514, 5583),
* Here is a calculator (scroll down) that is set-up to make these types of calculations, select “Chord & Segment Height” (which are w and h).
* The observed angle of 1 deg was also tried, but it actually made the r values even smaller, starting at w = 225:
r: 2773, 2712, 2650…, 1233 m.
One can see, as the base_line gets shorter (going up the pyramid), the r values get shorter.
Since the radius of the Earth is about 6.3 million meters, there is a difference of three orders of magnitude between the radius of the concave arcs and the actual value of the Earth’s radius. Arguably, one could take the r value of a particular layer, scale it by a factor of a 1,000, round it off and claim it corresponds to the radius of the Earth, but such a claim would be meaningless in light of all the other r values.
In addition, to account for the entire face to emulate the earth’s curvature, each layer would require a slightly different offset angle which is not in evidence with the data so far presented.
* Keep w at 225 m and change the offset angle from 0.5 to 0.000000155 deg —
(225 0.001 6,300,000).
So, to have a 225-m-long-object emulate the curvature of the earth, that object would need a 1 mm dip from its chord (h or the segment height). The offset angle for such a construct would be 0.155 micro deg — six orders of magnitude difference from the 1/2 deg observed by Sir Petrie.
* Keep the offset angle at 1/2 deg and change w to 220,000 m —
(220,000 960 6,300,000)
To maintain the 1/2 deg offset, the object would need a length of 220 km and have an indentation of almost 1 km.
Bottom line: I freely admit that my solutions or the numbers I used could be incorrect — please feel free to provide better solutions or sourcing. Absent any proof to the contrary, I submit the assertion is false that the Great Pyramid’s concave sides match the curvature of the Earth (“precisely” or otherwise).
Jeff @ 3 May 2010 at 12:16 AM.
all three of the pyramids at giza are a ground map of orion’s belt, each corresponding perfectly to angle, position and size of each of the three stars (alnitak, alnilam and mintaka). the position of these three stars in the sky locked perfectly over head in the southern sky in 10,500bc (with the nile river lining up to illustrate the milky way).
This theory was originally proposed by Mr. Robert Bauval and later enhanced in combo with Mr. Graham Hancock.
* In the sky, facing say north, the curve in Orion’s Belt (OB) is “concave up”, while the corresponding curve in the Giza Pyramids (GP) is “concave down”.
* If one mentally inverts the sky, the third pyramid (Menkaure) is not aligned with the third star (Mintaka) at all — hence the need to find a calender date that corresponds to a better agreement.
* The brightest star in OB is Alnitan, which is the middle star. The largest pyramid of the GP is Khufu, which is not the middle pyramid.
“But Bauval too was criticised for being careless in his calculation of the 10500 BC alignment between the Giza Pyramids and the stars of Orion’s Belt. To the shock and horror of Bauval’s followers, the BBC claimed that the accurate 10500 BC ‘lock-in’ between the Giza pyramids and Orion’s Belt was not quite so accurate after all. Worse still, in the ensuing furore, Bauval and Hancock actually conceded the point and admitted that the alignment was not precise.”
And this, a BBC special where Dr. Ed Krupp dissolves the theory:
The second video continues Dr. Krupp’s argument and initiates the BBC’s and Dr. Farrel’s (sp) arguments.
Bottom line: The correlation may (sorta) exist if the sky is inverted, the calendar changed, and the apparent magnitudes ignored. Without such manipulations, the assertion fails. There are much better theories that do not require such manipulations and are solely based on evidence.
Deciphering Sirius and Orion
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Sirius and Orion were the most important stars in the sky to many ancient civilizations including the Ancient Egyptians who gave extreme importance to these stars. But not only did the Ancient Egyptians worship these stellar objects, so did ancient civilizations in North, Central and South America and even in Asia.
According to Astronomers in the mysterious cloud of dust and gas called Orion, stars and planets may have been formed millions of years ago, basically it is Orion the place in the universe attributed to the birth of stars, but is there a possibility that ancient civilizations knew this before us? Before great technological advancements, spaceships and telescopes?
Sirius is the brightest star in the sky, shining proudly and powerfully earning rightfully the title as the brightest star in the astronomers magnitude scale. Sirius has a very long history in ancient civilizations and as Orion, is regarded as a very important place in the sky. This star has been sacred for civilizations in ancient Babylonia and Mesopotamia among others.
The original insignia for Apollo 13 depicted the constellation Orion in the background. The insignia was later changed but we know that most of NASA’s planned events coordinate in various fashions with Orion, Sirius, and their positions in the sky. An example of coordinated events from NASA and the stars is the Moon landing.
According to NASA records, the sea of tranquility was chosen based on its flat surface, but some researchers suggest this sight was chosen because on that date its coordinates lined up directly under Orion’s belt, but wait there is more, they picked the landing site picking out first of all a specific date, latitude and longitude specific time and than you work your way back from that to create whats called a launch window. The person who picked all of Apollos landing dates and landing times including Apollo 11 was Farouk El-Baz, his father is an expert on the ancient Egyptian stellar religion, now you just connect the dots.
According to Ancient Egyptian believes, ceremonies performed directly under Orion’s belt produce a sacred alignment, which allows humans to communicate directly with Osiris.
Apollo 11 had landed at a specific day and a specific time where the three belt stars of Orion were on the horizon.
According to some historians, it has been identified as the Biblical star Mazzaroth and the Dogon tribe in the Sahara desert have held this star among their most precious locations in the sky, but it is in Ancient Egypt where we find a vast history about this binary system (What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main-sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, called Sirius B. The distance separating Sirius A from its companion varies between 8.2 and 31.5 AU). In ancient Egyptian mythology, Hathor, was closely connected and identified to Sirius but then again so was Isis.
An icon of Sirius depicted as a five-pointed star was discovered on the walls of the Temple of Isis/Hathor located at Denderah. When we talk about the beautiful goddess Isis, we cannot omit Osiris, her husband. Osiris was connected to Orion. According to some, the Sirius system is attributed to Isis as Sirius A and Osiris as Sirius B.
Monuments spread across planet Earth, have a incredible, precise alignment with Orions three stars Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka
Spread all over our planet we can find literally hundreds of monuments that have been erected on Earth to reflect constellations such as Orion, or Sirius. One of the most famous monuments perhaps, are the Pyramids at the Giza Plateau. The Great Pyramid a true masterpiece and has rightly earned the title of a “Wonder”. It was built with such precision that our current technology cannot replicate it.
The Great Pyramid is estimated to have around 2,300,000 stone blocks that weigh from 2 to 30 tons each and there are even some blocks that weigh over 50 tons. The interior temperature is constant and equals the average temperature of the earth, 20 Degrees Celsius (68 Degrees Fahrenheit).
The cornerstone foundations of the pyramid have ball and socket construction capable of dealing with heat expansion and earthquakes and it is the most accurately aligned structure in existence and faces true north with only 3/60th of a degree of error, but most importantly the Descending Passage pointed to the pole star Alpha Draconis, circa 2170-2144 BCE. This was the North Star at that point in time. No other star has aligned with the passage since then.The southern shaft in the King’s Chamber pointed to the star Al Nitak (Zeta Orionis) in the constellation Orion, circa 2450 BCE. And as we mentioned before, the Orion constellation was associated with the Egyptian god Osiris.
No other star aligned with this shaft during that time in history. The apex of the Pyramid, corresponds to the geographical pole, while the perimeter of the Pyramid corresponds to the equator, both in proper scale . Each flat face of the Pyramid was designed to represent one curved quarter of the northern hemisphere (a spherical quadrant of 90°).
The ancient Egyptian civilization firmly believed that it was from Sirius and Orion that beings came to Earth in the form of humans, referring to Osiris and Isis and according to mythology they literally instigated the human race.
There was an extraordinary set of alignments around 10,500 BC.
Around 10,500 BC:
- Orion reached its lowest point at the meridian in its 26,000-year precessional cycle. (Precession slowly shifts Orion and other stars up and down the meridian, the imaginary north-south line drawn in the sky where the stars achieve their highest daily altitudes.)
- On the vernal equinox, the Great Sphinx, directly facing east, witnessed the rising of its two celestial counterparts – the sun and Leo.
At the moment of equinoctial sunrise (c. 10,500 BC):
- Orion was positioned right at the meridian.
- In the southern sky, the Milky Way was seen roughly vertical and positioned in such a way that it appeared to be an extension of the Nile. Orion was situated just to the right of the celestial river – closely mimicking the configuration of the Giza pyramids and the Nile.
Sirius and Orion are critically important to ancient Egyptian mythology because they represent Isis and Osiris, the god and goddess from which all of Egyptian civilization and, ultimately, all of human civilization, supposedly sprang. The ancient Egyptians were very clear- and we find evidence in writings and texts across Egypt, that Orion was linked with creation, Orion and Osiris are the same in ancient Egypt and the Egyptians believed that Osiris will return from Orion one day, and not only in Egypt we find tales of “Gods” promising to return, we can find this practically in every culture in antiquity which had the knowledge of somebody who would return one day.
Some what we have here is not only a correlation between the Stars in the sky with the constructions of monuments around our planet, but also shared belief and mythology between civilizations that, according to archaeology and history, were never connected. The layout of the pyramids of Teotihuacán are placed in such a way that they represent our solar system but also Orion’s Belt. According to ancient mythology, it is a point of creation. History tells us that in 3114 B.C., the gods came from the heavens to Earth in a convention, and this convention occurred in Teotihuacán.
The construction of Teotihuacán was attributed to the Quinametzin Giants Quinametzin(Náhuatl), a race of giants who, legend says, populated the world during the previous era and whose survivors were hidden in those days. “The Quinametzin were created during the era of the “Sun of Rain” and its ruler was Tlaloc”.
Sirius is also ancient Egypt’s inspiration for one of its first Calendars. In the Egyptian Sirius calendar, the year began with the helical rising of Sirius.
The true companion-star of Sirius, Sirius B, is made of super-dense matter which is heavier than any normal matter in the universe and the weight of this tiny star is the same as that of a gigantic normal star.
The Dogon also, as we know, say that Sirius B is ‘heavy’ and they speak of its ‘weight’.
But there are many more places on Earth where we find a correlation between the Stars and monument places. The Hopi are a Native American tribe whose cosmology, monuments, and landscape have a deep connection with the constellation of Orion, and as ancient civilizations across the globe, ranging from Africa to Europe, the Hopi tribe constructed their sacred sites i correlation to the constellation of Orion. It is very difficult to deny that there is a direct correlation between specific Hopi villages that spread throughout Arizona and the stars in the constellation. According to all of this what we have researched, Orion was of extreme importance for the Hopi tribe.
We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn’t look right please contact us.
See Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert, The Orion Mystery (New York: Crown Publishers, 1994), pp.99-103, 237-241.
The Pyramids: A Message from the Gods?
There are hundreds of pyramids of all shapes and sizes that can be found scattered across almost every continent on Earth. These amazing structures can be unofficially divided into two distinct classifications those with a confirmed function, and those with a largely unknown role that archaeology has simply made educated guesses about.
Evidence indicates that what we might term as the later pyramids, were used for ceremonial purposes as mausoleums or temples. Conventional archaeology suggests that all pyramids encompass this role, but in making that assertion they disregard evidence that may possibly change the way we should look at early pyramids.
In some respects this is understandable, as archaeology is to all intents and purposes a science that tries to operate within a demonstrable paradigm, but often this results in certain avenues of investigation being overlooked or dismissed too quickly.
To many, the earliest pyramids still remain something of a mystery, the true purpose of which for now, we can only speculate abou
t. Certainly these early pyramids seemed to serve as a template for the later civilisations of pyramid builders that spanned the globe, but what purpose could the oldest pyramids, such as those at Giza have been intended to serve? Where they really nothing more than tombs, or could they literally be a message from the gods?
One new, yet controversial theory revolves around the possibility that some of our oldest pyramids are examples of a lost language left by our planet&rsquos ancient inhabitants. These ancient pyramid builders may have been part of a long lost but highly advanced terrestrial civilisation whose traces have all but vanished from history, destroyed by an unknown cataclysmic event. However we are also forced to consider the possibility that an extraterrestrial race that once visited our planet may have left the pyramids as a permanent message for future generations of visitors from their own race.
Three Dimensional Language of the Gods
The language that the pyramids form may be of a three dimensional nature, quite unlike any language we are currently familiar with. It may even be that this language could be of a holographic and geometric nature.
Our understanding of language is naturally limited to that of our own human experience written language is encompassed neatly into well defined and established parameters. As any historian or linguist will confirm, there are many lost languages that we are aware of but are no longer able to translate - such as the Etruscan and Ogham languages. Language is a constantly evolving aspect of our cultures, but perhaps language has actually been subject to a process of devolution in the past. Perhaps it was once far more advanced than it is now.
We are used to writing being a two dimensional form of communication that is confined to paper or computer screen, but our modern understanding of what constitutes language could be limiting our capacity to see what is in front of us. We can detect a hint of mankind&rsquos past familiarity with three dimensional language in Mayan stone carvings, in the cuneiform tablets of the Sumerians and in khipu the system of knotted string that the Inca used &ndash and which scholars remain unable to translate. It is of course a massive step to question if the Giza Pyramids themselves might be a three dimensional language system, but it might explain the enigma that surrounds them. People from all walks of life seem to be intuitively drawn to the mystery of the pyramids without really being able to explain the attraction. Perhaps this theory explains why the Giza pyramids are famously devoid of any kind of inscription, if the pyramids were the message, there would be no need to overwrite that three dimensional communication with the inferior written word.
The pyramids could represent a form of language that not only bridges the gap between the written word and the world of symbolism but actually goes beyond it and plugs directly into our subconscious. The language system of the original pyramids might be sufficiently complex to incorporate more than the physical and the mathematical aspects of our world, but quite possibly the intuitive and the psychic.
Just as our own languages incorporate veiled but important elements such as metaphors and symbolism, it may be that the ancient language of the Pyramids also features hidden dimensions. In the case of the pyramids, those elements might include geographical position of the message in relation to the earth, as well as aspects of the configuration - establishing a relationship with specific constellations in the cosmos, as the Giza pyramids do with Orion. They may even create electromagnetic fields that can be &lsquoread&rsquo by anyone who is tuned into them &ndash the quartz crystals found in the granite blocks used in the construction of the King&rsquos Chamber in the Giza pyramids for example create a piezoelectric field that could in theory transmit a message to anyone capable of reading it. If the Giza pyramids are indeed a message from the ancients, then we might need to consider any number of unseen factors in order to understand them. There may be multiple facets of the message that need to be read not individually, but as a whole, in a similar way to how we often have to look deeper into our own written texts to ascertain the more profound meaning behind the message.
The commonly held belief is that any advanced civilisation that tried to communicate with us would do so in binary the most basic and universal form of mathematics. This idea is based on the dual assumptions that even the most advanced beings possibly millions of years ahead of us in terms of development would be aware of the binary system and of course, that they would choose to use it. If the message of the pyramids was not specifically intended for us, this might not necessarily be the case.
There are a growing number of researchers who believe that mankind couldn&rsquot have developed so quickly without the intervention of a more technologically advanced race. That intervention they claim had to be extraterrestrial in origin. Just as our early explorers such as Columbus introduced unknown customs and concepts to the primitive islanders of Tahiti, any visitors to earth might introduce ideas and technology to early humans. If we consider that the origin of the oldest pyramids may be extraterrestrial, then the possibility that any monument or message that they left behind them would incorporate an element of psychic communication makes some sense. After all, there is a great deal of witness testimony from contactees and abductees that states that communication with the aliens they encountered was undertaken at a psychic level.
If we envisage an extraterrestrial intelligence that lacks the restraints that anchors humanity in our current level of interaction, one capable of psychic communication, then the pyramids may take on an entirely new light. They could act as a permanent record that is both physical and non-physical at the same time.
Stepping into the Hologram
To understand how the language of the pyramid might work, it might be helpful to consider the way mystics, psychics and remote viewers experience and interact with reality. People with highly developed psychic skills observe and experience certain aspects of reality in a very different way to the rest of us. They are able to interact with the more subtle realms that most of us are unable to perceive. Psychics are often able to visualise locations they have never visited, viewing them from above, below and within without going anywhere near the location in question. It&rsquos as if they can tune into and manipulate a holographic model of the location with their mind and thus interact with them on an etheric and mundane level simultaneously. Could the piezoelectric field in the Great Pyramid act as a beacon to those who are capable of becoming attuned to its electronic signature? Such a field would certainly have an effect on the holographic potential of the structure, and modern archaeology has yet to satisfactorily explain why the huge granite blocks were used above the King&rsquos Chamber.
Scientists who subscribe to the holographic universe theory tend to view reality and the universe in general as a holographic construct. It could be that the original pyramids represent a physical recreation of a holographic language left by visitors from another world.
In Search of the Pyramid Builders
Pyramids have always been synonymous with Egypt however there is plenty of structural evidence to suggest that sometime in our history, the Earth was home to an ancient people who constructed pyramids all over the world.
Examples of pyramids exist not only in Mexico, Peru and Ancient Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) but also in China, which is home to over a hundred pyramids, some of which rival the Giza complex in terms of size, scale and mystery. The Canary Isles has a complex of step pyramids on one of its islands, as do the Maldives and archaeologists are currently studying what appears to be a pyramid discovered in Bosnia. This suggests that sometime in our past, the Earth was home to either several different pyramid building cultures, which created several variations of pyramids based on a master template, or to one single culture that was dispersed through out the world.
Respected researchers such as Thor Heyerdahl have suggested that ancient civilisations were in regular contact with each other in times gone by. If this is the case then it may be that the tradition of pyramid building spread across the world as civilisations and cultures attempted to replicate the original pyramids, pyramids that had been built by the &lsquoGods&rsquo themselves in relative ignorance of the message they contained. The fact that the oldest pyramids have stood the test of time suggests to some that their builders knew that it would be several millennia before humanity would be able to read the message they had left behind.
Lost or long forgotten
Symbolically, pyramids are thought to unite heaven and earth their solid base rests on the earth, and four faces, representing the four cardinal points of the compass rise to a peak in the heavens. This was thought to help the soul of the deceased ascend to heaven after death and to symbolise the spiritual development of man. It&rsquos easy to see how ancient people would embrace and relate to this symbolism, some researchers point to the fact that this symbolism might be based on an even more ancient and long lost understanding that the builders of the first pyramids originally came from and returned to the heavens.
Many ancient cultures have incorporated symbolism and geometry into their temple pyramids as if they were trying to follow an established formula. It cannot be simply coincidence that pyramid complexes as far away as Egypt, China and Peru incorporate very specific astrological alignments to particular constellations in their layout. It is as though a secret knowledge, the knowledge of the ancient world has slipped from the grasp of modern man.
History and Mystery
All pyramids have an uncertain history in truth, we cannot accurately date any of them, although some seem easier to approximate than others, where we can only make a best guess and hope that we come close. Researchers have suggested a variety of applications for our many pyramids that extends far beyond their use as temples and tombs to include uses such as observatories, power stations and water plants, places of initiation and complex calendars.
There has also been much speculation that if these structures were originally of extraterrestrial construction the pyramids may have acted as visual markers that could be seen from not only the air, but from space. This is particularly interesting as the Giza pyramids are located at the precise centre of the Earth&rsquos land mass as it would have been if sea levels were 178 metres higher than they are today &ndash i.e. during the great flood. Interestingly, according to one researcher, one of the pyramids near the Wei Ho River, north of Xian, is located at the exact centre of China&rsquos land mass. The construction of the smaller Chinese pyramids is similar to that of the pyramids of Teotihuacán, near Mexico City: piled earth - almost clay, with stepped sides, they can hardly be compared to the spectacular engineering of Giza pyramids, yet like Giza, their location cannot be simply put down to chance. Unlike Egypt&rsquos pyramids, the tops of most of the Chinese structures are flattened off, as is the case with the often-rectangular structures of the Mayans. China&rsquos pyramids are something of a mystery, as they incorporate some of the precision in alignment that we see in Egypt, but share common features with South America&rsquos pyramids. This points to the possibility that the Chinese pyramids not only predate the South American ones, but that there was contact between the two continents.
It seems sensible to explore what commonalities and inter relationships might exist between what is in effect a global network of pyramids in an effort to ascertain if their creation was the result of a deliberate dissemination of knowledge.
The Pyramids of Giza
Once clad in a gleaming white limestone facade and precisely aligned to the four cardinal directions, the Giza pyramids are probably the most studied structures in the world, yet despite this there is no definitive answer as to their true age or purpose. Popular opinion amongst orthodox Egyptologists is that the pyramids were built around 2,500B.C. as tombs for the Pharaoh Khufu, his son Khafre and Menkaure. However, as we&rsquove already seen, there are anomalies that point to the pyramids being far older &ndash especially if they do actually date back to the Great Flood.
Unlike the highly ornate tombs found in the Valley of the Kings, the three Giza pyramids contain no hieroglyphs: carvings and inscriptions that would have accurately identified their builders as well as confirming their function and time of construction. This is very strange because the Ancient Egyptians were an extremely superstitious people who would have been concerned about leaving such walls undecorated, as they considered &lsquoblank&rsquo or empty spaces to represent the void. It was also an Egyptian custom to adorn buildings with the names of the pharaoh and ruling elite as this was thought to ensure the person&rsquos immortality. The most important aspect of Egyptian life was ensuring the immortality of its rulers. The idea that the pyramid, essentially the vehicle used to transport a pharaoh to this state of immortality and stand as a permanent earthly monument to commemorate his reign, would be left nameless and undecorated is at odds with current understanding of Egyptian culture and indeed common sense. This has never been satisfactorily addressed by Egyptologists who support the tomb theory.
We do know that whoever built the pyramids of Giza possessed a highly advanced knowledge of maths, engineering and astronomy. It was Robert Bauval who first noticed that the alignment of the pyramids mirrored the three stars of the constellation Orion, suggesting that all three pyramids had been constructed as one project. The astronomical role of the complex also extends to pyramid shafts which point to specific stars, such as the Pole star. While this could be to allow the pharaoh&rsquos soul to ascend to its rightful place amongst the stars, if the original pyramid was intended to be a form of writing and relay a message, then perhaps the shafts pointing to those stars serve a different purpose.
If the design of the pyramids is baffling, their location is even more so. The Giza pyramids, as we&rsquove already said, were built at the ancient geographical centre of the Earth. Other research that we haven&rsquot covered yet suggests that encoded in the pyramids is a method to map the entire Earth (see the Giza Blueprints link at the end of the article). Such a significant position is either an extraordinary coincidence or means that the pyramids&rsquo location was chosen very deliberately. There would be no reason for a pharaoh&rsquos tomb to be located so precisely and the only way to calculate such an exact position would have been to view the earth from space, clearly something that would be beyond the ability of the ancient people if they were as primitive as history assumes. The most credible reason for the pyramids to have been built in such a precise location would be if they were marking something seemingly the centre of the planet, but why this should be so important remains a mystery, unless the exact centre of a planet was an accepted location to leave a message for future visitors.
Dating the Giza pyramids is a highly controversial subject that there is little agreement on. Certainly it&rsquos fair to say that the archaeological establishment is at odds with the date of 10,000 BC suggested by Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert in their best selling book, the &lsquoThe Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids&rsquo, but dating the pyramids depends greatly on the evidence you use to calculate the date.
Bauval and Gilbert used computer software to recreate the night sky at the time when it mirrored the pyramids as closely as possible. This conjunction, they discovered, was almost exact around 10,450 B.C. Other researchers such as Alan Alford tend to question this date and suggest what they say is a more plausible period of 6000-5000 B.C. &ndash which is still around 3,000 years earlier than modern Egyptology claims they were built. All three dates pale into insignificance if we consider that they may have been around at the time of the Great Flood.
In all, there are hundreds of pyramids in Egypt but despite many notable attempts including the Step pyramid at Saqqara, the bent pyramid of Dashur and the red pyramid of Sneferu, the Egyptians were never able to replicate the size, scale, engineering and astronomical precision of Giza. The Red pyramid, which took 17 years to build, came close in base size to the Great pyramid, but lacked the height, complexity and astronomical alignment of the great pyramid. The fact that the Egyptians experimented with size, shape and design in their bid to build pyramids that rivalled the great pyramid suggests that the science and knowledge used to construct the Giza complex was no longer available it had simply been lost. Perhaps the reason that this knowledge was lost, it that the Giza pyramids had been built 3,000 years earlier, by a civilisation that the Egyptians themselves may not have even known.
Perhaps all that remained of the pyramid builders&rsquo ancient knowledge was the understanding that the pyramid represented a connection with the heavens and with the continuation of existence beyond that which we know on Earth.
China&rsquos Secret Pyramids
There is only one other country in the world where the numbers of surviving pyramids rival Egypt&rsquos in terms of size and numbers and as we&rsquove already mentioned, that is China. Until recently, Chinese officials have been very guarded in even admitting that the pyramids exist. Although little has been attempted in terms of archaeological study, in the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, the entire cosmos is mapped out as were earthly features such as rivers, which were created using mercury.
According to researchers Mark and Richard Wells, at least some of China&rsquos pyramids appear to be aligned in very specific formations. The vast majority of the pyramids so far discovered are located in a 100km area around the city Xi'an, which is probably best known as the location of the terracotta warriors. According to Wells:
&ldquoWe studied a number of star maps and the prominent star constellations. It was not hard to notice that our plan of the pyramid layout matched the constellation of Gemini, including the star Betelgeuse from the neighbouring constellation of Orion. Also the photograph appears as if it has been taken from the top of another pyramid, if we add this to the plan then you find that it matches the brightest star in Taurus, Aldebaran.&rdquo
The pair then used a program called SkyGlobe to recreate the night sky taking the sky map back to the date of 10,500 B.C. They discovered that the constellation of Gemini was rising on the spring equinox on that date, with the pyramids matching the sky, at sunrise.
The more we delve into man&rsquos history and try and relate the establishment version of events with the evidence that our ancestors left behind, the more we realise that the facts don&rsquot create a complete picture. Somewhere lost in time lies our secret history our forgotten past.
It seems incredible to think that such a unique style of construction as the pyramid was used by supposedly primitive people across the world without there being some interaction and common understanding of what they were trying to achieve. This raises two possibilities: that these ancient people who were divided by oceans and vast continents may have been in communication with each other and shared a common understanding of how and why pyramids were a vital aspect of their culture, and secondly that the oldest pyramids were indeed created by an extraterrestrial civilisation as a message. Whether that message was intended for humanity when we reached a particular stage in our evolution or whether it was a communication left for subsequent extraterrestrial visitors to our planet is something that perhaps only time will tell.
Egyptian and Mesoamerican Pyramid Differences
From time immemorial mankind has been obsessed with building huge structures for various reasons, especially religious ones, and also to show how clever they were and how advanced was the technology of their culture. Today, history repeats itself as modern sky scraper towers compete in height that dwarf the ancient stone pyramids of Egypt and Mesoamerica.
The Egyptians began it all some 4650 years ago, with the beginning of the Pyramid Age, lasting some 800 years, covering 2650 BC to 1850 BC of Egyptian history. This was a time of strong Pharaoh controlled central government of a combined Lower (deltaic) and Upper Nile region (south to first cataract), a distance of about 500 miles. The Pharaohs and citizens believed in life after death. It was important that each King was buried in a tomb enclosed within an impressive pyramid monument, with all the trappings needed for his soul to journey comfortably into the next world.
Today about 138 Egyptian pyramids are known with some being merely heaps of rubble and remnants of past glory. They are all found on the Western side of the narrow fertile valley of the Nile, and situated isolated on the adjacent hot arid desert plateau. Most famous and visited by tourists is the cluster of well preserved three large pyramids and three smaller stepped ones, as well as the Sphinx, at Giza, close to Cairo, the capital of Egypt.
The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is the largest, measuring originally 146 metres high and 230 metres across the square base. Adjacent, is the pyramid of Khafre, noticeably showing an apex remnant facing of polished reflective white limestone. The third large pyramid in this cluster is that of Menkaure, half as tall. This site is considered to be a “Necropolis” with the pyramids being burial monuments, or being designed as a sort of “resurrection machine” for the Pharaohs to meet up with the Gods of the Heavens.
How do these wonderful Egyptian pyramids compare with those found in Mesoamerica and what are their differences?
Equally famous tourist wise are the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon located in the ancient Aztec city of Teotihuacan on the outskirts of Mexico City. The Pyramid of the Sun measures 222 meters across the square base and now is 71 meters tall, being built about 100 AD. Originally this stepped pyramid was painted a bright red on a lime plaster giving it a spectacular appearance. An imposing staircase of 248 steps allows tourists access to the summit platform where once existed a temple or alter, used by high priests to perform human sacrifices and other religious ceremonies.
The Pyramid of the Moon is a tad smaller but of similar height, being linked to the Pyramid of the Sun by the Calzada de los Muertos (Avenue of the Dead) some 650 meters away. The pyramids, plazas, temples and palaces make up the central feature of the ancient city of Teotihuacan, lying at an elevation of 2300 meters in Central Valley of Mexico. The Pyramid of the Moon was completed about AD 300. The ancient city of Teotihuacan spread over 20 sq km with a population estimated at 100,000 at its prime (ca 500 AD) making it then the largest city in the Americas. The city encountered economic and social problems leading to its decline and eventual collapse in the 7th century AD.
Given this synopsis of the Egyptian and Mesoamerican pyramids it is possible to point out their differences.
Importantly, they were built for different purposes, are of different design and are located in sites different with regard to the local populace.
The Egyptian pyramids were monuments containing the tombs of Pharaohs, or Kings and Queens with the idea of assisting their souls in moving on to an after life. The pyramids were often built as clusters (a Necropolis) quite away from civilization out on the desert plateau.
The Aztec and Mayan pyramids are different in the sense they were built as central features of a town or city, like later Europeans built cathedrals. Usually the large pyramids did not contain tombs of Kings, exceptions being the temple pyramid at Palenque in Chiapas State, and at Tikal, Guatemala.
There is a continuous architectural design of Mayan temples from flat sprawling one or two floor ones to those having a stepped pyramid shape to larger pyramids having stepped faces but always with the top truncated allowing space for a little temple or alter. Access to the top was by means of an imposing stairway on one or more sides of the pyramid. The purpose of this design was a religious one but different from the Egyptians. Religious ceremonies often involving human sacrifices were performed on top to appease their Gods, particularly the Sun God and the Rain God, to break a drought or ensue a forth coming plentiful harvest. Secondly, massive human sacrifices were sometimes performed on captured enemies. In a sense the large Aztec pyramids were a “fear machine” used for keeping the populace under control by the rulers.
The Great Egyptian pyramid was built by the stacking of limestone blocks averaging 2.5 tons in weight. This allowed for easy construction of internal passages and burial chambers which were lined with granite and basalt blocks. The Aztec and Mayan pyramids, or temple pyramids, were built from piles of rubble with an outer layer of limestone blocks or volcanic rock, hence they are mostly solid rock with few internal features.
The Pyramid of the Sun contains 3 million tons of rock material and was built without the aid of metal tools, pack animals or the wheel! Excavation of some temple pyramids has revealed a multistage construction whereby the steps of the original pyramid have been filled with rubble to expand its size and height, often done three or four times. The angle of slope is 32 degrees to the horizon compared to 52 degrees for the pointy Egyptian Great pyramid, which means that the Pyramid of the Sun is only half as high, but has the same base area. This is a necessary result of the different structural design.
Mayan and Toltec temple pyramids abound in the waterless limestone lowlands of the Yucatán Peninsula, where at Chichén Itzá is the wonderful example of “El Castillo” pyramid of multiple construction and 25 meters tall, built about 800 AD. It represents the Mayan calendar in stone. Further south in the tropical forests of Guatemala is the ancient city of Tikal having four temple pyramids of very steep design that poke up above the jungle canopy, the highest being Templo IV at 64 meters. Finally is the famous Mayan site at Copán Ruinas in Honduras where the temple pyramids and stairways are adorned with carvings and hieroglyphics recording the history of the region during the Classic Period (AD 250 to 900).
In summary, Egyptian pyramids are the steep pointy ones built as monuments to hold the tombs of Kings and Queens. The Mesoamerican pyramids were multipurpose, stepped temple-pyramids, usually more gently sloped and having an outer stairway to the top.